Expression of CD44, PCNA and E-cadherin in Pterygium Tissue


Purpose: Pterygium is a common ocular surface disease defined by fibrovascular conjunctival growth extending onto the cornea. Its pathogenesis remains unclear. In severe cases, it may extend into the central cornea, inducing irregular corneal astigmatism and causing loss of vision. CD44( phagocytic glycoprotein-1 ) is involved in the organization of certain cellular processes, for instance, cell adhesion, division, and migration, by binding with its main ligand, hyaluronic acid. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is a proliferation marker in the nucleus. E-cadherin is a calcium-dependent transmembrane glycoprotein that plays a significant role in the protection of tissue integrity and cell-to-cell adhesion. This study aimed to determine the role of CD44, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and E-cadherin in pterygium formation and recurrence.

Study Type

  • Study Type: Observational [Patient Registry]
  • Study Design
    • Time Perspective: Cross-Sectional
  • Study Primary Completion Date: December 2023

Detailed Description

Methods:60 patients with pterygium will be enrolled in the study and conjunctival samples will be collected from 30 patients to form the control group. CD44, PCNA and E-cadherin expressions in surgically removed pterygium will be compared with tissue samples from normal control group. IBM SPSS (statistical software) version 26.0 will be used for statistical analyses.


  • Other: Expression of CD44, E-cadherin and PCNA
    • The investigators use primary antibodies against CD44 (1:50 dilution) and E-cadherin (1:200 dilution), and a human monoclonal antibody against PCNA (1:100 dilution) for antigen retrieval. Histopathological and immunohistochemical staining findings will be reported using a Nikon light microscope and an image analysis system (Nikon Instruments Europe BV)

Arms, Groups and Cohorts

  • control group
    • group 1 -control group normal conjunctiva from 30 patients
  • group 2 primary pterygia
    • primary pterygia samples from 30 patients
  • group 3 recurrent pterygia
    • recurrent pterygia samples from 30 patients

Clinical Trial Outcome Measures

Primary Measures

  • Immunohistochemistry
    • Time Frame: up to three weeks after pterygium surgery
    • Thin sections will be taken from paraffin embedded tissue samples and placed on barcode glass slides After deparaffinization and rehydration, the sections will be subjected to histopathological evaluation using hematoxylin and eosin staining.We use primary antibodies against CD44 (1:50 dilution) and E-cadherin (1:200 dilution), and a human monoclonal antibody against PCNA (1:100 dilution) for antigen retrieval

Participating in This Clinical Trial

Inclusion Criteria

patient with pterygium - Exclusion Criteria:

patient with pseudopterygium -

Gender Eligibility: All

Minimum Age: N/A

Maximum Age: N/A

Are Healthy Volunteers Accepted: No

Investigator Details

  • Lead Sponsor
    • Balikesir University
  • Provider of Information About this Clinical Study
    • Principal Investigator: HUMEYRA YILDIRIM, Expression of CD44, PCNA and E-cadherin in pterygium tissue – Balikesir University
  • Overall Official(s)
    • HÜMEYRA YILDIRIM, Principal Investigator, Balıkesir Medical Faculty
  • Overall Contact(s)
    • HÜMEYRA YILDIRIM, 05305244841,

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