Toilet Training and Adults With Learning Disabilities


Incontinence is common in adults with learning disabilities (LDs). Behavioural toilet training in conjunction with toilet alarms is recommended for people with LDs, but there is a paucity of research, thus evidence-based practise, on behavioural toilet training for adults with LDs. The aim of this study is to assess the toileting needs and issues of 30 adults with LDs with incontinence, and determine whether a 12-week individualised positive behavioural support training intervention, with the use of toilet alarms, promotes continence.

Full Title of Study: “Toileting Assessment and Toilet Training for Adults With Learning Disabilities With Incontinence”

Study Type

  • Study Type: Interventional
  • Study Design
    • Allocation: N/A
    • Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment
    • Primary Purpose: Treatment
    • Masking: None (Open Label)
  • Study Primary Completion Date: September 27, 2023

Detailed Description

Adults with learning disabilities with incontinence are being invited to participate in a 12-week personalised, positive toilet training plan, following assessment of their toileting needs. Primary outcome measures will be: number of incidences of incontinence, and number of instances of successful voiding in a toilet. Toilet alarms will be used to encourage prompted voiding in a toilet.


  • Device: Toilet alarm
    • A Malem toilet alarm (wristworn, discretely in underwear, or bed mat) will be used to promote prompred voiding in a toilet

Arms, Groups and Cohorts

  • Experimental: Intervention group
    • 30 adults with learning disabilities with incontinence will be offered a 12-week personalised toilet training plan, which promotes prompted voiding in a toilet

Clinical Trial Outcome Measures

Primary Measures

  • Number of instances of incontinence
    • Time Frame: 12 weeks
    • The intervention should promote less instances of incontinence
  • Number of instances of successful voiding in a toilet
    • Time Frame: 12 weeks
    • The intervention should promote more instances of successful voiding in a toilet

Participating in This Clinical Trial

Inclusion Criteria

  • Adults with learning disabilities with incontince across all levels of learning disabilities (mild to profound) Exclusion Criteria:

  • Cannot sit on a toilet for up to 3 minutes

Gender Eligibility: All

Minimum Age: 18 Years

Maximum Age: 90 Years

Are Healthy Volunteers Accepted: Accepts Healthy Volunteers

Investigator Details

  • Lead Sponsor
    • Glasgow Caledonian University
  • Collaborator
    • University of Kent
  • Provider of Information About this Clinical Study
    • Sponsor

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