Effect of Oculomotor Exercise on Writing Capabilities on Autism

Overview

Autism spectrum disorders (ASD)are neurodevelopmental disorders that are clinically characterized by a triad of features: impairments in social interaction, impairments in communication, and presence of restrictive repetitive and stereotypical behaviors, interests, or activities (DSM-IV). In addition to these core deficits, ASD is associated with a high prevalence of fine motor difficulties and executive function impairments that contribute to acquisition and performance of skilled motor tasks. It is therefore not surprising that handwriting difficulties are frequently reported in children with ASD.

Full Title of Study: “Effect of Oculomotor and Gaze Stability Exercise on Writing Capabilities on Autism”

Study Type

  • Study Type: Interventional
  • Study Design
    • Allocation: Randomized
    • Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
    • Primary Purpose: Treatment
    • Masking: Single (Participant)
  • Study Primary Completion Date: March 2022

Detailed Description

Handwriting is a functional skill that profoundly affects children's academic and psychosocial development. Difficulties in acquiring and applying these skills subsequently lead to problems such as slow writing and illegible written .Such difficulties may have implications on the child's successful participation in school and play activities, potentially leading to problems in academic performance and lowered self-esteem .Therefore, students with handwriting difficulties are especially prone to frustration, disappointment, and under achievement. The aim of our study is to improve handwriting quality of children with ASD.

Interventions

  • Other: visual motor integration group
    • Oculomotor exercises as follow:(1) Eye follow with a stationary head 2)Saccadic eye movements 3) Gaze stability 4)Eye/head co-ordination 5)Balancing exercises
  • Other: Handwriting intervention programs
    • (1)Eye motor coordination (2)position in space(3)coping-figure ground(4)spatial relationship(5)visual closure(6)constancy of shapes(7)far and near coping
  • Other: visual motor integration program and Handwriting intervention programs
    • Oculomotor exercises as follow:(1) Eye follow with a stationary head 2)Saccadic eye movements 3) Gaze stability 4)Eye/head co-ordination 5)Balancing exercises 6)Eye motor coordination (7)position in space(8)coping-figure ground(9)spatial relationship(10)visual closure(11)constancy of shapes(12)far and near coping Hand writing intervention as follow (1)Eye motor coordination (2)position in space(3)coping-figure ground(4)spatial relationship(5)visual closure(6)constancy of shapes(7)far and near coping

Arms, Groups and Cohorts

  • Experimental: visual motor integration group
    • participants in the experimental group will receive visual motor integration program
  • Active Comparator: Handwriting intervention group
    • participants in the experimental group will receive handwriting intervention program.
  • Active Comparator: visual motor integration and Handwriting intervention group
    • participants in the group will receive visual motor integration program and handwriting intervention program.

Clinical Trial Outcome Measures

Primary Measures

  • gaze stability
    • Time Frame: 6 weeks
    • Rating scale of gaze stability 0= negative Gaze stable smooth well coordinated,percise and fast movement of the head,fluent change of head movement direction modreate positive Gaze stable,slightely irregular head movement strong positive Gaze repeatedly unstable ,head movement slow and irregular

Secondary Measures

  • eye head coordination
    • Time Frame: 6 weeks
    • Rating scale of sequential head and eye movements 0= negative Clear,regular ,smooth, dissociated movements,of head and eyes. moderately positive slightely decelerated eye movements.occasional associated eye-head movements ,head unstable. strongly positive clearly decelerated , irregular and often associated eye -head movements test not feasible.

Participating in This Clinical Trial

Inclusion Criteria

  • Mild autism (score 55-71) on Gilliam Autism Rating Scale (GARS-3). – Intelligence quotient (IQ) score 70-100. – Writing difficulties Exclusion Criteria:

  • Middle ear disorders – Physical or mental conditions that may affect handwriting (e.g., seizures) – Uncorrected visual or hearing impairments.

Gender Eligibility: All

Minimum Age: 5 Years

Maximum Age: 8 Years

Are Healthy Volunteers Accepted: No

Investigator Details

  • Lead Sponsor
    • Misr University for Science and Technology
  • Provider of Information About this Clinical Study
    • Principal Investigator: Samah Mahmoud Sheha, principal investigator – Misr University for Science and Technology
  • Overall Official(s)
    • Samah M Sheha, PhD, Principal Investigator, Misr University for Science and Technology

References

Accardo AL, Finnegan EG, Kuder SJ, Bomgardner EM. Writing Interventions for Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Research Synthesis. J Autism Dev Disord. 2020 Jun;50(6):1988-2006. doi: 10.1007/s10803-019-03955-9.

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