Comparing High-Dose Cisplatin Every Three Weeks to Low-Dose Cisplatin Weekly When Combined With Radiation for Patients With Advanced Head and Neck Cancer

Overview

This phase II/III trial compares the effect of the combination of high-dose cisplatin every three weeks and radiation therapy versus low-dose cisplatin weekly and radiation therapy for the treatment of patients with locoregionally advanced head and neck cancer. Chemotherapy drugs, such as cisplatin, work in different ways to stop the growth of tumor cells, either by killing the cells, by stopping them from dividing, or by stopping them from spreading. Radiation therapy uses high energy x-rays to kill tumor cells and shrink tumors. This study is being done to find out if low-dose cisplatin given weekly together with radiation therapy is the same or better than high-dose cisplatin given every 3 weeks together with radiation therapy in treating patients with head and neck cancer.

Full Title of Study: “Randomized Phase II/III Trial of Radiation With High-Dose Cisplatin (100 mg/m2) Every Three Weeks Versus Radiation With Low-Dose Weekly Cisplatin (40 mg/m2) for Patients With Locoregionally Advanced Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck (SCCHN)”

Study Type

  • Study Type: Interventional
  • Study Design
    • Allocation: Randomized
    • Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
    • Primary Purpose: Treatment
    • Masking: None (Open Label)
  • Study Primary Completion Date: February 9, 2031

Detailed Description

PRIMARY OBJECTIVES: I. To determine whether radiation with low-dose cisplatin weekly is superior in terms of acute toxicity, as measured by the T-scores (TAME method), to radiation with high-dose cisplatin every 3 weeks for patients with locoregionally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN). (Phase II) II. To determine whether radiation with low-dose cisplatin weekly is non-inferior to radiation with high-dose cisplatin every 3 weeks in terms of overall survival (OS) for patients with locoregionally advanced SCCHN. (Phase III) III. To determine whether radiation with low-dose cisplatin weekly is superior in terms of acute toxicity, as measured by the T-scores (TAME method), to radiation with high-dose cisplatin every 3 weeks for patients with locoregionally advanced SCCHN. (Phase III) SECONDARY OBJECTIVES: I. To assess and compare progression-free survival (PFS) between arms. II. To assess and compare locoregional failure and distant metastasis between arms . III. To assess acute and late toxicity (Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events [CTCAE] version 5.0). IV. To assess patient-reported outcomes quality of life (PRO/QOL), as measured by the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Head and Neck (FACT-H&N) (primary PRO), between arms. V. To assess hearing loss, as measured by audiograms and the modified TUNE grading scale between arms. VI. To assess hearing loss, as measured by speech audiometry Consonant-Nucleus-Consonant word scores and tympanometry (subject to the modified TUNE grading scale testing results; otherwise, it will be an exploratory objective). VII. To assess hearing-related QOL as measured by the Hearing Handicap Inventory-Screening (HHIA-S) (secondary PRO), between arms. EXPLORATORY OBJECTIVE: I. To collect blood and tissue specimens for future translational science studies. For instance, to examine how germline and somatic genetic variants, such as TP53, CDKN2A, PIK3CA, PTEN, NFE2L2, and KEAP1, may influence cisplatin-related efficacy and toxicity, and to assess the effect of regular nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) use and genomic activation of PIK3CA (mutation or amplification) or loss of PTEN, the negative regulator of PI3K, on disease-free survival or overall survival. OUTLINE: Patients are assigned to 1 of 2 groups. GROUP I (NON-OROPHARYNGEAL CANCER [OPC]/p16-NEGATIVE OPC): Patients are randomized to 1 of 2 arms. ARM I: Patients undergo radiation therapy over 5 fractions a week for a total of 33-35 fractions in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. Patients also receive high-dose cisplatin intravenously (IV) once every 3 weeks (Q3W) (on days 1, 22, and 43) during radiation therapy in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. ARM II: Patients undergo radiation therapy over 5 fractions a week for a total of 33-35 fractions in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. Patients also receive low-dose cisplatin IV once a week (QW) during radiation therapy in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. GROUP II (p16-POSITIVE OPC/CANCER OF UNKNOWN PRIMARY [CUP]): Patients are randomized to 1 of 2 arms. ARM III: Patients undergo radiation therapy over 5 fractions a week for a total of 33-35 fractions in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. Patients also receive high-dose cisplatin IV Q3W (on days 1, 22, and 43) during radiation therapy in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. ARM IV: Patients undergo radiation therapy over 5 fractions a week for a total of 33-35 fractions in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. Patients also receive low-dose cisplatin IV QW during radiation therapy in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. After completion of study treatment, patients are followed up at 1 month, every 3 months during year 1-2, every 6 months during year 3-5, then annually thereafter.

Interventions

  • Drug: Cisplatin
    • Given high-dose cisplatin IV
  • Drug: Cisplatin
    • Given low-dose cisplatin IV
  • Other: Quality-of-Life Assessment
    • Ancillary studies
  • Other: Questionnaire Administration
    • Ancillary studies
  • Radiation: Radiation Therapy
    • Undergo radiation therapy

Arms, Groups and Cohorts

  • Experimental: ARM I (high-dose cisplatin, radiation therapy)
    • NON-OPC/p16-NEGATIVE OPC: Patients undergo radiation therapy over 5 fractions a week for a total of 33-35 fractions in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. Patients also receive high-dose cisplatin IV Q3W (on days 1, 22, and 43) during radiation therapy in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity.
  • Experimental: Arm II (low-dose cisplatin, radiation therapy)
    • NON-OPC/p16-NEGATIVE OPC: Patients undergo radiation therapy over 5 fractions a week for a total of 33-35 fractions in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. Patients also receive low-dose cisplatin IV QW during radiation therapy in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity.
  • Experimental: Arm III (high-dose cisplatin, radiation therapy)
    • p16-POSITIVE OPC/CUP: Patients undergo radiation therapy over 5 fractions a week for a total of 33-35 fractions in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. Patients also receive high-dose cisplatin IV Q3W (on days 1, 22, and 43) during radiation therapy in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity.
  • Experimental: Arm IV (low-dose cisplatin, radiation therapy)
    • p16-POSITIVE OPC/CUP: Patients undergo radiation therapy over 5 fractions a week for a total of 33-35 fractions in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. Patients also receive low-dose cisplatin IV QW during radiation therapy in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity.

Clinical Trial Outcome Measures

Primary Measures

  • Incidence of acute toxicity (Phase II)
    • Time Frame: Up to 180 days post-treatment
    • Measured by the T-scores.
  • Overall Survival (OS) (Phase III)
    • Time Frame: From randomization to death of any cause, assessed up to 9 years
    • OS rates will be estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method.
  • Incidence of acute toxicity (Phase III)
    • Time Frame: Up to 180 days post-treatment
    • Measured by the T-scores.

Secondary Measures

  • Locoregional Failure Rates
    • Time Frame: Up to 9 years
  • Progression-free survival (PFS)
    • Time Frame: From randomization to locoregional failure, distant metastasis or death due to any cause, whichever occurs first, assessed up to 9 years
    • PFS rates will be estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method and between-arm differences compared using the log-rank test with a two-sided alpha of 0.05 (Kaplan 1958).
  • Incidence of acute toxicity
    • Time Frame: Up to 180 days post-treatment
    • Measured by Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) version (v) 5.0.
  • Incidence of late toxicity
    • Time Frame: Up to 9 years
    • Measured by CTCAE v5.0.
  • Hearing loss
    • Time Frame: At 6 months post-radiation therapy
    • Measured by Hearing Handicap Inventory for Adults-Screening.

Participating in This Clinical Trial

Inclusion Criteria

  • Pathologically (histologically or cytologically) proven diagnosis of SCCHN of the oropharynx, larynx, hypopharynx, or p16-positive unknown primary prior to registration; specimen from cervical lymph nodes with a well-defined primary site documented clinically or radiologically is acceptable; in patients with carcinoma of unknown primary this will be sufficient for pathologic confirmation without a clinically or radiographically defined primary site – For patients with oropharyngeal cancer (OPC)/cancer of unknown primary (CUP): P16 status based on local site immunohistochemical tissue staining is required. A cell block obtained from a fine needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy specimen may be used as the sole diagnostic tissue. Centers are encouraged to contact the pathology chair for clarification – Note: Institutions must screen patients for p16 status by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in order to be eligible for the trial using a Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA)-certified laboratory. A rigorous laboratory accreditation process similar to the United States (U.S.) CLIA certification, such as the provincial accreditation status offered by the Ontario Laboratory Accreditation (OLA) Program in Canada, the College of American Pathologists (CAP), or an equivalent accreditation in other countries, is acceptable. – The p16 results must be reported on the pathology report being submitted. The p16 positivity is defined as > 70% of tumor cells showing strong nuclear and/or cytoplasmic immunostaining with p16 antibody. – For patients with laryngeal and hypopharyngeal primaries: Analysis of p16 status is NOT required – Patients must have clinically or radiographically evident measurable disease at the primary site or at nodal stations. Simple tonsillectomy or local excision of the primary without removal of nodal disease is permitted, as is excision removing gross nodal disease but with intact primary site. Limited neck dissections retrieving =< 4 nodes are permitted and considered as non-therapeutic nodal excisions – Clinical stage (American Joint Committee on Cancer [AJCC], 8th ed.), including no distant metastases based on the following diagnostic workup: – History/physical examination within 60 days prior to registration – One of the following imaging studies is required within 60 days prior to registration: – Computed tomography (CT) scan of neck (diagnostic quality with contrast, unless contraindicated) OR – Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the neck (diagnostic quality with contrast, unless contraindicated) OR – Fludeoxyglucose F-18 (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET)/CT of the neck; the CT component should be of diagnostic quality with contrast, unless contraindicated. – Note: A diagnostic quality CT or MRI with contrast or FDG-PET/CT scan of neck performed for the purposes of radiation planning may serve as both staging and planning tools – One of the following imaging studies is required within 60 days prior to registration: – FDG-PET/CT of the chest; FDG-PET/CT scan is strongly preferred and highly recommended to be used for eligibility OR – Chest CT – Exam with laryngopharyngoscopy (mirror or in office direct procedure acceptable) within 70 days prior to registration; – Eligibility by patient cohort; – Non-OPC/p16-negative OPC Cohort; Tumor Site: Larynx/Hypopharynx; Clinical Staging (AJCC, 8th ed.): T3-4 N0 or T1-4 N1-3 T2 N0 (hypopharynx only) – Tumor Site: p16-negative OPC; Clinical Staging (AJCC, 8th ed.): T2N1, T1-4 N2-3, or T3-4 N0-1 – p16-positive OPC/CUP Cohort; – Tumor Site: OPC; Smoking Status: =< 10 pack-years; Clinical Staging (AJCC, 8th ed.): T1-3 N2-3 or T4 N0-3 – Tumor Site: OPC; Smoking Status: > 10 pack-years; Clinical Staging (AJCC, 8th ed.): T1-2 N2-3 or T3-4 N0-3 – Tumor Site: CUP; Smoking Status: Any; Clinical Staging (AJCC, 8th ed.): T0 N2-3 – Age >= 18 – Zubrod (Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group [ECOG]) performance status of 0-1 within 14 days prior to registration – Absolute neutrophil count (ANC) >= 1,500 cells/mm^3 (within 30 days prior to registration) – Platelets >= 75,000 cells/mm^3 (within 30 days prior to registration) – Hemoglobin >= 8.0 g/dL (within 30 days prior to registration) – Note: The use of transfusion or other intervention to achieve hemoglobin [Hgb] >= 8.0 g/dL is acceptable) – Calculated creatinine clearance (CrCl) >= 50 mL/min by the Cockcroft-Gault formula (within 30 days prior to registration) – Total bilirubin =< 1.5 x institutional upper limit of normal (ULN) (within 30 days prior to registration) (not applicable to patients with known Gilbert's syndrome) – Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) =< 1.5 x institutional ULN (within 30 days prior to registration) – Known human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients on effective anti-retroviral therapy with undetectable viral load within 6 months and CD4 T Cell count > 200 cells/mm^3 are eligible for this trial. Testing is not required for entry into protocol – Patients with a prior or concurrent malignancy whose natural history or treatment does not have the potential to interfere with the safety or efficacy assessment of the investigational regimen are eligible for this trial – Negative urine or serum pregnancy test (in persons of childbearing potential) within 14 days prior to registration. Childbearing potential is defined as any person who has experienced menarche and who has not undergone surgical sterilization (hysterectomy or bilateral oophorectomy) or who is not postmenopausal. Menopause is defined clinically as 12 months of amenorrhea in a woman over 45 in the absence of other biological or physiological causes – Willing to use highly effective contraceptives for participants of childbearing potential (participants who may become pregnant or who may impregnate a partner) during therapy and for 14 months (females); for 11 months (males) following last dose of cisplatin; this inclusion is necessary because the treatment in this study may be significantly teratogenic – The patient or a legally authorized representative must provide study-specific informed consent prior to study entry and, for patients treated in the United States (U.S.), authorization permitting release of personal health information Exclusion Criteria:

  • Patients with oral cavity cancer, nasopharynx cancer, or p16-negative cancer of unknown primary (CUP) – Recurrence of the study cancer – Definitive clinical or radiologic evidence of distant metastatic disease – Prior systemic chemotherapy for the study cancer; note that prior chemotherapy for a different cancer is allowable, however, any prior exposure to cisplatin is excluded – Prior radiotherapy to the region of the study cancer that would result in overlap of radiation therapy fields – Severe, active co-morbidity defined as follows: – Unstable angina requiring hospitalization in the last 6 months – Myocardial infarction within the last 6 months – New York Heart Association Functional Classification III/IV (Note: Patients with known history or current symptoms of cardiac disease, or history of treatment with cardiotoxic agents, should have a clinical risk assessment of cardiac function using the New York Heart Association Functional Classification.) – Persistent grade 3-4 (CTCAE version 5.0) electrolyte abnormalities that cannot be reversed despite replacement as indicated by repeat testing – Patient must not have an active infection requiring IV antibiotics prior to registration; – Other chronic renal disease like nephrotic syndrome, that could be worsened by cisplatin therapy – History of allogenic organ transplantation – Any symptomatic peripheral sensory neuropathy grade >= 2 (CTCAE version 5.0); – Pregnancy and individuals unwilling to discontinue nursing

Gender Eligibility: All

Minimum Age: 18 Years

Maximum Age: N/A

Are Healthy Volunteers Accepted: No

Investigator Details

  • Lead Sponsor
    • NRG Oncology
  • Collaborator
    • National Cancer Institute (NCI)
  • Provider of Information About this Clinical Study
    • Sponsor
  • Overall Official(s)
    • Paul M Harari, Principal Investigator, NRG Oncology

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