The AMPK Modulator Metformin as a Novel Adjunct to Conventional Therapy in Patients With Knee Osteoarthritis


metformin alleviates drug-induced osteoarthritis (OA)-like change in mice knee joint through activating autophagy and downregulating apoptosis. Metformin exerts its protective effects against OA through the AMPKa2/ SIRT1 pathway. Metformin suppresses IL-1β-induced oxidative and osteoarthritis-like inflammatory changes by enhancing the SIRT3/PINK1/Parkin signaling pathway, thereby indicating metformin's potential in prevention and treatment of osteoarthritic joint disease.

Full Title of Study: “The AMPK Modulator Metformin as a Novel Adjunct to Conventional Therapy in Patients With Knee Osteoarthritis: A Proof-of-Concept, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial”

Study Type

  • Study Type: Interventional
  • Study Design
    • Allocation: Randomized
    • Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
    • Primary Purpose: Treatment
    • Masking: Double (Participant, Investigator)
  • Study Primary Completion Date: February 28, 2022


  • Drug: Metformin
    • Metformin 1000mg tablet plus celecoxib 200 mg capsule
  • Drug: Placebo
    • Placebo tablet plus celecoxib 200 mg capsule

Arms, Groups and Cohorts

  • Experimental: Paroxetine
    • Metformin 1000 mg daily plus Celecoxib 200mg capsule
  • Experimental: Placebo
    • Placebo tablet daily plus Celecoxib 200mg capsule

Clinical Trial Outcome Measures

Primary Measures

  • Visual Analogue scale assessment of pain
    • Time Frame: week 12
    • the change of Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) pain score from baseline to posttreatment

Secondary Measures

  • WOMAC change
    • Time Frame: week 12
    • the change of WOMAC Osteoarthritis Index from baseline to posttreatment
  • the change of Short Form 36 Questionnaire (SF-36) score from baseline to posttreatment
    • Time Frame: week 12
    • The SF-36 is a generic instrument to assess health-related quality of life. It consists of 36 questions and assesses 8 dimensions: physical functioning, role physical, pain index, general health, vitality, social functioning, role emotional, and mental health index. It also provides 2 summary measures of physical and mental components. The SF-36 score ranges from 0 to 100, with higher scores indicating better health status.
  • Adverse drug reaction
    • Time Frame: 12 weeks
    • Clinical side effects
  • AMPK expression
    • Time Frame: 12 weeks
    • AMPK gene expression
  • Serum level Tumor necrosis factor- alpha (TNF-α)
    • Time Frame: 12 weeks
    • Serum level Tumor necrosis factor- alpha (TNF-α)
  • Serum levels of IL-1β
    • Time Frame: 12 weeks
    • Serum levels of IL-1β
  • IL-17
    • Time Frame: 12 weeks
    • Serum levels of IL-17

Participating in This Clinical Trial

Inclusion Criteria

  • Primary osteoarthritis Patients recruited were between 30 to 60 years of age, with X-ray confirmed Kellgren-Lawrence grade13 II or III severity primary tibiofemoral OA, according to the American College of Rheumatology criteria. Exclusion Criteria:

Those patients were excluded from the present study who:

  • were of age less than 30 years or more than 60 years – presented with active concomitant gastroduodenal disorders, hepatic and renal impairment within last 30 days prior to receiving the study drug – were diagnosed to have any inflammatory arthritis, gout or acute trauma of the knee, hip or spine; accompanying OA of the hip of sufficient severity to interfere with the functional assessment of the knee – had previous or ongoing treatment with oral SYSDOA (e.g., glucosamine sulphate, chondroitin sulphate, diacerein, piascledine), anti-depressants, tranquillisers, antacids or antibiotics; were having active cardiac lesion or hypertension, were pregnant females and those who were planning their pregnancy during the study – were having a known hypersensitivity to the used medications – have persistent diarrhoea or laxative use; severe gastrointestinal disorders, severe obesity, severe parenchymal organ disease, or anaemia (haemoglobin< 10.0 g/ dl or haematocrit < 30%). – Patients who received oral, intramuscular, intraarticular or soft tissue injections of corticosteroids within last eight weeks before receiving the first dose of the study medication, or had undergone joint lavage and arthroscopic procedures in the previous 6 months, were also excluded.

Gender Eligibility: All

Minimum Age: 30 Years

Maximum Age: 60 Years

Are Healthy Volunteers Accepted: No

Investigator Details

  • Lead Sponsor
    • Sadat City University
  • Provider of Information About this Clinical Study
    • Principal Investigator: Mahmoud Samy Abdallah, Principle Investigator – Sadat City University

Clinical trials entries are delivered from the US National Institutes of Health and are not reviewed separately by this site. Please see the identifier information above for retrieving further details from the government database.

At, we keep tabs on over 200,000 clinical trials in the US and abroad, using medical data supplied directly by the US National Institutes of Health. Please see the About and Contact page for details.