Use of Phenylephrine for Assessment of Mitral Regurgitation Severity


The study proposes to develop a phenylephrine protocol to be used during transesophageal echocardiography, whereby intravenous phenylephrine would be used to increase afterload with the intent to mimic the awake hemodynamic profile and variation that occurs with normal physical activity. The expectation is to see changes in severity of Mitral Regurgitation (MR) grade with increasing afterload, which in turn can provide more accurate quantification of MR severity to assist in clinical decision making.

Full Title of Study: “Evaluating the Severity of Mitral Regurgitation Using Phenylephrine During Transesophageal Echocardiography”

Study Type

  • Study Type: Interventional
  • Study Design
    • Allocation: N/A
    • Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment
    • Primary Purpose: Diagnostic
    • Masking: None (Open Label)
  • Study Primary Completion Date: November 2021

Detailed Description

Routine echocardiography which is used to assess the severity of mitral regurgitation, sometimes underestimates the severity of mitral regurgitation, due to hemodynamic variations that occurs with normal physical activity and under the effect of sedation which is used to perform transesophageal echocardiography. By using phenylephrine during transesophageal echocardiography, the study intends to offset the hemodynamic variation that occurs with sedation and better assess the severity of mitral regurgitation, which would further assist in clinical decision-making regarding treatment. The goal of this study is to compare the severity of mitral regurgitation grade before and after the administration of phenylephrine during transesophageal echocardiography and to demonstrate a 25% increase in severity of mitral regurgitation grade compared to the baseline conditions, following the administration of phenylephrine.


  • Drug: Mydfrin
    • A test dose of 20 mcg of Mydfrin will be administered through the peripheral intravenous line. Subsequent Mydfrin injections will then be administered in 40 mcg aliquots every 10-15 minutes, until the mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) increases by ≥ 20 mm Hg from the baseline MAP, however making sure not to exceed a MAP of 100 mmHg. Once a desired blood pressure has been achieved and maintained, echocardiographic evaluation of mitral regurgitation would be performed.

Arms, Groups and Cohorts

  • Experimental: Mydfrin
    • Phenylephrine is available as phenylephrine hydrochloride injection, 10 mg/mL in 1 mL vial. For intravascular bolus administration, the investigators will prepare a solution containing 100 mcg/mL of phenylephrine hydrochloride, by withdrawing 10 mg (1ml of 10mg/mL) of phenylephrine injection and diluting with 99 mL of 5% dextrose injection or 0.9% sodium chloride injection.

Clinical Trial Outcome Measures

Primary Measures

  • The percentage of patients with greater than 25% increase in MR regurgitant volume (Rvol) after the use of phenylephrine during transesophageal echocardiography.
    • Time Frame: Before and after phenylephrine administration during transesophageal echocardiography, approximately 40 minutes
    • The purpose of this study is to compare the echocardiographic parameters of MR grade before and after the use of phenylephrine during transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) and to document an increase in echocardiographic parameters of MR grade after the use of phenylephrine.

Participating in This Clinical Trial

Inclusion Criteria

  • Patients 18 years or older with MR on baseline echocardiographic evaluation who are scheduled to undergo TEE for further evaluation of mitral regurgitation. Exclusion Criteria:

  • The following patients will be excluded from the study: 1. Patients who are not clinically eligible for TEE. 2. Patients with contraindications to esophageal intubation. 3. Patients with hemodynamic instability. 4. Patients with acute decompensated heart failure (HF). 5. Patients with un-revascularized severe coronary artery disease (triple vessel or left main disease). 6. Patients with ongoing unstable angina or ongoing myocardial infarction (MI) 7. Patients with significant arrhythmias including atrial fibrillation. 8. Patients with uncontrolled hypertension (BP ≥ 150/90 mmHg). 9. Patients with preexisting bradycardia (HR < 50) and heart blocks. 10. Patients with severe symptomatic peripheral vascular disease. 11. Patients with severe pulmonary hypertension (estimated systolic pulmonary arterial pressure sPAP ≥ 60mm Hg). 12. Patients who are at high risk for intracranial bleeding such as patients with previous strokes, transient ischemic attack (TIA) and vascular malformations. 13. Additionally, patients with mean arterial blood pressure MAP > 100 mmHg during TEE and those with severe MR, effective regurgitant orifice area (ERO > 39cm2) on baseline TEE evaluation will not be given phenylephrine and excluded from the study.

Gender Eligibility: All

Minimum Age: 18 Years

Maximum Age: N/A

Are Healthy Volunteers Accepted: No

Investigator Details

  • Lead Sponsor
    • Montefiore Medical Center
  • Provider of Information About this Clinical Study
    • Sponsor
  • Overall Official(s)
    • Mario Garcia, MD, Principal Investigator, Montefiore Medical Center
  • Overall Contact(s)
    • Safeera Javed, MD, 929-293-6103,


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