High grade neuroendocrine neoplasm patients are treated with platinum doublets such as carboplatin and etoposide mimicking the current guidelines for small cell lung cancer (SCLC). Unfortunately, recurrences are common and most patients with metastatic disease succumb to it within a year. There is no extensive literature or consensus on second- or third-line options (which include FOLFOX, FOLFIRI, capecitabine and temozolomide, taxanes or immunotherapy) and there is urgent need for better regimens.
- Study Type: Interventional
- Study Design
- Allocation: N/A
- Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment
- Primary Purpose: Treatment
- Masking: None (Open Label)
- Study Primary Completion Date: December 31, 2023
- Drug: Cabozantinib
- Cabozantinib should be taken on an empty stomach (at least 1 hour before or 2 hours after eating) at the same time every day.
- Procedure: Blood for plasma biomarkers
- -Baseline (one day prior to the first dose of cabozantinib), after 1 week of treatment (range 5-8 days), after 2 weeks of treatment (range 12-15 days), and with every new cycle (every 21 days).
Arms, Groups and Cohorts
- Experimental: Cabozantinib
- -Cabozantinib 60 mg by mouth daily on days 1-21
Clinical Trial Outcome Measures
- Objective response rate (ORR)
- Time Frame: Through the end of treatment (estimated to be 4 months)
- ORR is defined as number of patients with complete response or partial response Complete response – Disappearance of all target lesions, non-target lesions, and normalization of tumor marker level. Any pathological lymph nodes (whether target or non-target) must have reduction in short axis to <10 mm. Partial response – At least a 30% decrease in the sum of the diameters of target lesions, taking as reference the baseline sum diameters.
- Overall survival (OS)
- Time Frame: Through completion of follow-up (estimated to be 1 year)
- -OS is defined as days from date of treatment to date of death. Patients alive or lost to follow-up are censored at the follow-up date.
- Progression-free survival (PFS)
- Time Frame: Through completion of follow-up (estimated to be 1 year)
- PFS is defined as the days from the date of treatment and death or progression, which occurs first. Patients alive without progression or lost to follow-up are censored at the last follow-up date. Progressive Disease (PD): At least a 20% increase in the sum of the diameters of target lesions, taking as reference the smallest sum on study (this includes the baseline sum if that is the smallest on study). In addition to the relative increase of 20%, the sum must also demonstrate an absolute increase of at least 5 mm. (Note: the appearance of one or more new lesions is also considered progressions).
- Safety of regimen as measured by incidence of adverse events
- Time Frame: From start of treatment through 30 days after last dose of study treatment (estimated to be 5 months)
Participating in This Clinical Trial
-Histologically or cytologically confirmed high-grade neuroendocrine tumor that has progressed on first line therapy, excluding small cell lung cancer (SCLC). High grade includes any neuroendocrine neoplasm with a Ki-67 of >=20% or with mitotic count of more than 20 mitoses per high power field or any poorly differentiated neoplasm or any neoplasm lacking these that is deemed high grade by pathology consensus, based on other markers (necrosis or IHC demonstrating p53 or RB mutation). This includes:
- High grade well differentiated neuroendocrine neoplasms
- Transformed NENs from a lower to a higher grade (patient may have some low grade and some high grade NENs)
- High grade neoplasms with significant expression of neuroendocrine markers such as synaptophysin, chromogranin or INSM-1 or unknown origin neoplasms with gene expression signatures consistent with neuroendocrine lineage (as per validated tissue of origin testing, such as CancerType ID, after pathology consensus).
- Mixed neuroendocrine and non-neuroendocrine neoplasms (MiNEN), including MiNEN per WHO and mixed neoplasms not fulfilling criteria of MiNEN. The neuroendocrine component would need to be a high-grade neuroendocrine tumor as documented by pathology review.
Note: Up to two prostate NEC patients (primary diagnosis, not transformed adenocarcinoma) will be enrolled in the first phase.
Note: For ambiguous cases, will consult with a designated expert pathologist.
- Measurable disease defined as lesions that can be accurately measured in at least one dimension (longest diameter to be recorded) as ≥ 10 mm with CT scan, as ≥ 20 mm by chest x-ray, or ≥ 10 mm with calipers by clinical exam.
- Concurrent or prior somatostatin analogue therapy is allowed (for well differentiated high grade neoplasms). Prior use investigational agents is allowed.
- At least 18 years of age.
- ECOG performance status ≤ 1 (Karnofsky ≥ 80%)
- Normal bone marrow and organ function as defined below:
- Absolute neutrophil count ≥ 1,500/mm3 without granulocyte colony-stimulating factor support
- White blood cell count ≥ 2,500/mm3
- Platelets ≥ 100,000/mm3 without transfusion
- Hemoglobin ≥ 9.0 g/dL
- AST(SGOT), ALT(SGPT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) ≤ 3.0 x IULN; ALP ≤ 5.0 x IULN with documented bone metastases
- Total bilirubin ≤ 1.5 x IULN (for subjects with gilbert's disease ≤ 3.0 x IULN)
- Serum albumin ≥ 2.8 g/dL
- Serum creatinine ≤ 2.0 x IULN or calculated creatinine clearance ≥ 30 mL/min by Cockcroft-Gault
- Urine protein/creatinine ratio (UPCR) ≤ 1 mg/mg (≤ 113.2 mg/mmol)
- PT/INR or PTT < 1.3 x IULN (within 7 days before the first dose of study treatment)
- Corrected QT interval calculated by the Fridericia formula (QTcF) ≤ 500 ms (by ECG within 28 days before the first dose of study treatment).
- Recovery to baseline or ≤ grade 1 from toxicities related to any prior treatments, unless adverse events are clinically nonsignificant and/or stable on supportive therapy.
- The effects of cabozantinib on the developing human fetus are unknown. For this reason, women of childbearing potential and men must agree to use adequate contraception (e.g. barrier methods, including male condom, female condom, or diaphragm with spermicidal gel) prior to study entry, for the duration of study participation, and for 4 months after the last dose of study treatment. Should a woman become pregnant or suspect she is pregnant while participating in this study, she must inform her treating physician immediately. Men treated or enrolled on this protocol must also agree to use adequate contraception prior to the study, for the duration of the study, and for at least 4 months after the last dose of study treatment.
- Ability to understand and willingness to sign an IRB approved written informed consent document (or that of legally authorized representative, if applicable).
- A history of other malignancy with the exception of malignancies for which all treatment was completed at least 2 years before registration and the patient has no evidence of disease. Allowed are superficial skin cancers, or localized, low grade tumors deemed cured and not treated with systemic therapy at any point in the prior year.
- Currently receiving any other investigational agents. Prior use of investigational agents is allowed.
- Prior treatment with cabozantinib.
- Receipt of any small molecule kinase inhibitor (including investigational kinase inhibitor) within 2 weeks before the first dose of study treatment.
- Receipt of any type of cytotoxic, biologic, or other systemic anticancer therapy (including investigational) within 4 weeks before first dose of study treatment.
- Radiation therapy for bone metastasis within 2 weeks, any other radiation therapy within 4 weeks before the first dose of study treatment. Systemic treatment with radionuclides within 6 weeks before the first dose of study treatment. Patients with clinically relevant ongoing complications from prior radiation therapy are not eligible.
- Patients with treated brain metastases are eligible if there is no evidence of progression for at least 4 weeks after CNS-directed treatment, as ascertained by clinical examination and brain imaging (MRI or CT scan) during the screening period. Eligible subjects must be neurologically asymptomatic and without corticosteroid treatment at the time of first dose of study treatment.
- Inability to swallow tablets.
- A history of allergic reactions attributed to compounds of similar chemical or biologic composition to cabozantinib or other agents used in the study.
- Concomitant anticoagulation with coumarin agents (e.g. warfarin), direct thrombin inhibitors (e.g., dabigatran), direct factor Xa inhibitor betrixaban, or platelet inhibitors (e.g. clopidogrel). Allowed anticoagulants are the following:
- Prophylactic use of low-dose aspirin for cardio-protection (per local applicable guidelines) and l ow-dose low molecular weight heparins (LMWH)
- Therapeutic doses of LMWH or anticoagulation with direct factor Xa inhibitors rivaroxaban, edoxaban, or apixaban in subjects without known brain metastases who are on a stable dose of the anticoagulant for at least 1 week before first dose of study treatment without clinically significant hemorrhagic complications from the anticoagulation regimen or the tumor.
- Uncontrolled, significant intercurrent or recent illness including, but not limited to, the following conditions:
- Cardiovascular disorders:
- Congestive heart failure New York Heart Association Class 3 or 4, unstable angina pectoris, serious cardiac arrhythmias.
- Uncontrolled hypertension defined as sustained blood pressure (BP) > 140 mm Hg systolic or > 90 mm Hg diastolic despite optimal antihypertensive treatment.
- Stroke (including transient ischemic attack [TIA]), myocardial infarction (MI), or other ischemic event, or thromboembolic event (e.g., deep venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism) within 6 months before first dose of study treatment.
- Subjects with a diagnosis of incidental, subsegmental PE or DVT within 6 months are allowed if stable, asymptomatic, and treated with anticoagulation for at least 1 week before first dose of study treatment.
- Gastrointestinal (GI) disorders including those associated with a high risk of perforation or fistula formation:
- The subject has evidence of tumor invading the GI tract, active peptic ulcer disease, inflammatory bowel disease (e.g., Crohn's disease), diverticulitis, cholecystitis, symptomatic cholangitis or appendicitis, acute pancreatitis, acute obstruction of the pancreatic duct or common bile duct, or gastric outlet obstruction.
- Abdominal fistula, GI perforation, bowel obstruction, or intra-abdominal abscess within 6 months before first dose.
Note: Complete healing of an intra-abdominal abscess must be confirmed before first dose.
- Clinically significant hematuria, hematemesis, or hemoptysis of > 0.5 teaspoon (2.5 ml) of red blood, or other history of significant bleeding (eg, pulmonary hemorrhage) within 12 weeks before first dose.
- Cavitating pulmonary lesion(s) or known endotracheal or endobronchial disease manifestation.
- Lesions invading or encasing any major blood vessels.
- Other clinically significant disorders that would preclude safe study participation.
- Serious non-healing wound/ulcer/bone fracture.
- Uncompensated/symptomatic hypothyroidism.
- Moderate to severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh B or C).
- Major surgery (e.g. GI surgery removal or biopsy of brain metastasis) within 8 weeks before first dose of study treatment. Complete wound healing from major surgery must have occurred 1 month before first dose and from minor surgery (e.g., simple excision, tooth extraction) at least 10 days before first dose. Patients with clinically relevant ongoing complications from prior surgery are not eligible.
- Pregnant and/or breastfeeding. Women of childbearing potential must have a negative pregnancy test within 15 days of study entry. Women of childbearing potential are defined as premenopausal females capable of becoming pregnant (i.e., females who have had any evidence of menses in the past 12 months, with the exception of those who had prior hysterectomy). However, women who have been amenorrheic for 12 or more months are still considered to be of childbearing potential if the amenorrhea is possibly due to prior chemotherapy, antiestrogens, low body weight, ovarian suppression, or other reasons.
- Patients with HIV are eligible unless their CD4+ T-cell counts are < 350 cells/mcL or they have a history of AIDS-defining opportunistic infection within the 12 months prior to registration. Concurrent treatment with effective ART according to DHHS treatment guidelines is recommended. Recommend exclusion of specific ART agents based on predicted drug-drug interactions (i.e. for sensitive CYP3A4 substrates, concurrent strong CYP3A4 inhibitors (ritonavir and cobicistat) or inducers (efavirenz) should be contraindicated).
Gender Eligibility: All
Minimum Age: 18 Years
Maximum Age: N/A
Are Healthy Volunteers Accepted: No
- Lead Sponsor
- Washington University School of Medicine
- Provider of Information About this Clinical Study
- Overall Official(s)
- Nikolaos Trikalinos, M.D., Principal Investigator, Washington University School of Medicine
- Overall Contact(s)
- Nikolaos Trikalinos, M.D., 314-362-5654, email@example.com
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