The Seniors COvid-19 Pandemic and Exercise Study

Overview

The purpose of this study is to evaluate different types of exercise programs (virtual group-based exercise program; personal exercise program; wait-list control) across 12-weeks on the physical and mental health of older adults during the current Covid-19 pandemic.

Full Title of Study: “The Seniors COvid-19 Pandemic and Exercise Study: A Randomized Controlled Trial”

Study Type

  • Study Type: Interventional
  • Study Design
    • Allocation: Randomized
    • Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
    • Primary Purpose: Prevention
    • Masking: Single (Outcomes Assessor)
  • Study Primary Completion Date: September 30, 2020

Interventions

  • Behavioral: Virtual Group Intervention
    • Participants will receive weekly exercise courses delivered virtually to a group of older adults. This intervention will last for 12 weeks. Participants in addition to participating in exercise will have designated time after each exercise class to socially connect. Participants in this condition will also receive a t-shirt.
  • Behavioral: Personal Exercise Intervention
    • Participants will receive weekly exercise courses delivered virtually. These classes will be pre-recorded so the individual can complete sessions at any time that is convenient for them.

Arms, Groups and Cohorts

  • Experimental: Virtual group exercise
    • Individuals in the (virtual) group-based exercise program, will have the opportunity to take part in (virtual) group exercise classes, delivered via videoconferencing, by experienced older adult exercise instructors. Personnel who analyze the data collected from the study are not aware of the treatment applied to any given group. Classes will be offered multiple days a week at 9am PST (12 noon EST), and will last approximately 50 minutes. Classes include a warm-up component, moderate intensity exercises as the core component of the class, and a cool-down. At the end of classes participants will have the opportunity to connect in small groups (videoconferencing breakout groups) to socially connect over a beverage (coffee, water) from their own homes. Participants in the group condition will also be sent, by mail, a program t-shirt to foster a sense of distinctiveness.
  • Experimental: Personal exercise
    • Each of the older adult instructors described above will also contribute to delivering pre-recorded exercise classes (involving the same exercises, intensity, music, and so forth as those described above for the group condition). However, in this instance, instructors will deliver those classes to each participant by referring to themselves as each participant’s personal trainer/coach, with language directed to the individual and not the group. That is, no sense of ‘groupness’ or ‘shared social identities/connectivity’ will be primed. Also, participants in this condition will not have the opportunity to interact with other older adults after classes have ended and will not receive the same program t-shirts designed to foster a sense of group distinctiveness.
  • No Intervention: Wait-list control
    • Those randomized to the wait-list control condition will go about their daily lives for the duration of the 12-week trial. They will be asked to complete the same questionnaires (and will be remunerated in the same way as those in the other two conditions via $10 per questionnaire completion). At the end of the 12-week trial, participants in this condition will have access to the personal exercise programming.

Clinical Trial Outcome Measures

Primary Measures

  • Well-Being (Psychological Flourishing)
    • Time Frame: Baseline (Week 0), Week 2, Week 4, Week 6, Week 8, Week 10, Follow-up (Week 12)
    • Well-being will be self reported using an 8-item measure from Diener et al., 2010

Secondary Measures

  • Life Satisfaction
    • Time Frame: Baseline (Week 0), Week 2, Week 4, Week 6, Week 8, Week 10, Follow-up (Week 12)
    • 1-item question by Fleeson, 2004
  • Stress
    • Time Frame: Baseline (Week 0), Week 2, Week 4, Week 6, Week 8, Week 10, Follow-up (Week 12)
    • 1 Item Statistics Canada Stress Question from the Canadian Community Health Survey (2012)
  • Depression
    • Time Frame: Baseline (Week 0), Week 2, Week 4, Week 6, Week 8, Week 10, Follow-up (Week 12)
    • 10 Item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) via Andresen et al., 1994
  • Resilience
    • Time Frame: Baseline (Week 0), Week 2, Week 4, Week 6, Week 8, Week 10, Follow-up (Week 12)
    • 6 item Brief Resilience Scale by Smith et al., 2008
  • Social Identification
    • Time Frame: Baseline (Week 0), Week 2, Week 4, Week 6, Week 8, Week 10, Follow-up (Week 12)
    • items adapted from the 4-item scale by Doosje et al., 1995
  • Social and Emotional Lonliness
    • Time Frame: Baseline (Week 0), Week 2, Week 4, Week 6, Week 8, Week 10, Follow-up (Week 12)
    • 11-item scale by De Jong Gierveld et al., 2006
  • Chronic Illness (Physical Health)
    • Time Frame: Baseline (Week 0)
    • question by Charles et al., 2006 adapted from Larsen et al., 1991
  • Weekly Somatic Symptoms (Physical Health)
    • Time Frame: Baseline (Week 0), Week 2, Week 4, Week 6, Week 8, Week 10, Follow-up (Week 12)
    • question by Charles et al., 2006 adapted from Marmot et al., 1997
  • Leisure-time physical activity
    • Time Frame: Baseline (Week 0), Week 2, Week 4, Week 6, Week 8, Week 10, Follow-up (Week 12)
    • modified version of the Leisure Score Index (LSI; Courneya, Jones, Rhodes, & Blanchard, 2004) that has been applied to Godin’s Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire (GLTEQ; Godin & Shepard, 1985).
  • Alcohol Habits
    • Time Frame: Baseline (Week 0), Week 2, Week 4, Week 6, Week 8, Week 10, Follow-up (Week 12)
    • 3-item measure for alcohol consumption from CDC Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Survey Questionnaire, 1984-2019
  • Physical Adherence
    • Time Frame: Looked at each day of the week for 12 weeks to see if a session was attended
    • Objective measure of attendance in online sessions (interventions conditions only)
  • Affective Attitudes
    • Time Frame: Baseline (Week 0), Week 2, Week 4, Week 6, Week 8, Week 10, Follow-up (Week 12)
    • 3 semantic differential items toward physical activity using scale by Azjen, 2006
  • Demographics
    • Time Frame: Baseline only (Week 0)
    • Items addressing sex/gender, age, ethnicity, sexual orientation, chronic conditions, smoking behaviour, height, weight, education level, household income level, employment status, marital status, and living situation (i.e., alone vs. others).

Participating in This Clinical Trial

Inclusion Criteria

  • 65+ years old
  • be able to speak and read English
  • one participant in the study per household (Spouses, significant others, or family members can take part in the exercise programs with the study participant; however, they will not be able to provide data and won't be remunerated for participating)
  • not experience any contraindication which might prevent that person from participating in moderate-intensity physical activity.
  • participants must be able to access the internet at home via a personal smartphone, tablet (e.g., ipad), or computer (device used must have camera capabilities)
  • low active individuals (i.e., less than 150 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity per week)
  • currently living in Canada

Exclusion Criteria

  • age of less than 65 years
  • unable to read and speak in English
  • inability to participate in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (including a lack of ability to receive doctor's clearance for participating in physical activity)
  • lack of internet access which does not allow them to access online materials
  • device used to access the internet does not have a camera/video capabilities
  • active individuals (e.g., participate in greater than 150 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity each week)
  • living outside Canada
  • not the first person from a household to enroll in the study

Gender Eligibility: All

Minimum Age: 65 Years

Maximum Age: N/A

Are Healthy Volunteers Accepted: Accepts Healthy Volunteers

Investigator Details

  • Lead Sponsor
    • University of British Columbia
  • Collaborator
    • University of Victoria
  • Provider of Information About this Clinical Study
    • Principal Investigator: Mark Beauchamp, Professor – University of British Columbia
  • Overall Official(s)
    • Mark R Beauchamp, PhD, Principal Investigator, University of British Columbia
  • Overall Contact(s)
    • Ryan M Hulteen, PhD, 604 822 9140, ryan.hulteen@ubc.ca

References

Diener, E., Wirtz, D., Tov, W., Kim-Prieto, C., Choi, D. W., Oishi, S., & Biswas-Diener, R. (2010). New well-being measures: Short scales to assess flourishing and positive and negative feelings. Social indicators research, 97(2), 143-156.

Andresen EM, Malmgren JA, Carter WB, Patrick DL. Screening for depression in well older adults: evaluation of a short form of the CES-D (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale). Am J Prev Med. 1994 Mar-Apr;10(2):77-84.

De Jong Gierveld, J, Tilburg, TV. A 6-Item Scale for Overall, Emotional, and Social Loneliness: Confirmatory Tests on Survey Data. Research on Aging. 2006; 28(5): 582-598.

Charles, S.T. & Almeida, D.M. Daily reports of symptoms and negative affect: Not all symptoms are the same. Psychology & Health. 2006; 21(1): 1-17

Fleeson, W. (2004). The quality of American life at the end of the century. In O. G. Brim, C. D. Ryff, & R. C. Kessler (Eds.), How healthy are we? A national study of wellbeing at midlife. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Statistics Canada (2012), Canada Canadian Community Health Survey. Share File, Knowledge Management and Reporting Branch, Ontario MOHLTC

Smith BW, Dalen J, Wiggins K, Tooley E, Christopher P, Bernard J. The brief resilience scale: assessing the ability to bounce back. Int J Behav Med. 2008;15(3):194-200. doi: 10.1080/10705500802222972.

Doosje, B., Ellemers, N., Spears, R. (1995) Perceived intragroup variability as a function of group status and identification. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 31(5): 410-436.

Larsen RJ, Kasimatis M. Day-to-day physical symptoms: individual differences in the occurrence, duration, and emotional concomitants of minor daily illnesses. J Pers. 1991 Sep;59(3):387-423.

Marmot M, Ryff CD, Bumpass LL, Shipley M, Marks NF. Social inequalities in health: next questions and converging evidence. Soc Sci Med. 1997 Mar;44(6):901-10.

Courneya KS, Jones LW, Rhodes RE, Blanchard CM. Effects of different combinations of intensity categories on self-reported exercise. Res Q Exerc Sport. 2004 Dec;75(4):429-33.

Godin G, Shephard RJ. A simple method to assess exercise behavior in the community. Can J Appl Sport Sci. 1985 Sep;10(3):141-6.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (1984 – 2019). Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Survey Questionnaire. Atlanta, Georgia: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Ajzen, I. (2006). Constructing a TPB questionnaire: Conceptual and methodological considerations. Retrieved from https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/0574/b20bd58130dd5a961f1a2db10fd1fcbae95d.pdf

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