The Influence of Energy Density and Information on Meal Intake in Adults

Overview

The purpose of this study is to gain a better understanding of how energy density and cognitive framing of satiation using food information can influence consumption at a meal. This study also aims to investigate the influence of energy density and food information on sensory specific satiety (the decline in the subjective pleasantness of a food as it is eaten).

Full Title of Study: “Lunch Meal Study for Men and Women”

Study Type

  • Study Type: Interventional
  • Study Design
    • Allocation: Randomized
    • Intervention Model: Crossover Assignment
    • Primary Purpose: Basic Science
    • Masking: Single (Participant)
  • Study Primary Completion Date: December 2021

Interventions

  • Other: Lower Energy Density
    • Test meal with lower energy density
  • Other: Higher Energy Density
    • Test meal with higher energy density
  • Other: Lower Satiation
    • Information on lower satiation
  • Other: Higher Satiation
    • Information on higher satiation

Arms, Groups and Cohorts

  • Experimental: Lower Energy Density & Lower Satiation
    • Test meal with lower energy density and lower satiation information
  • Experimental: Lower Energy Density & Higher Satiation
    • Test meal with lower energy density and higher satiation information
  • Experimental: Higher Energy Density & Lower Satiation
    • Test meal with higher energy density and lower satiation information
  • Experimental: Higher Energy Density & Higher Satiation
    • Test meal with higher energy density and higher satiation information

Clinical Trial Outcome Measures

Primary Measures

  • Change in food intake by weight
    • Time Frame: Weeks 1, 2, 3, 4
    • Weight of food consumed measured in grams (g)
  • Change in energy intake
    • Time Frame: Weeks 1, 2, 3, 4
    • Energy content of food consumed measured in kilocalories (kcal)

Secondary Measures

  • Change in palatability rating of food samples
    • Time Frame: Weeks 1, 2, 3, 4
    • Difference between post-meal and pre-meal palatability of the food samples measured by Visual Analogue Scales (ranging from 0 mm to 100 mm) to assess Sensory-Specific Satiety
  • Change in prospective consumption rating of food samples
    • Time Frame: Weeks 1, 2, 3, 4
    • Difference between post-meal and pre-meal prospective consumption of food samples measured by Visual Analogue Scales (ranging from 0 mm to 100 mm) to assess Sensory-Specific Satiety
  • Change in hunger rating
    • Time Frame: Weeks 1, 2, 3, 4
    • Difference between post-meal and pre-meal hunger measured by Visual Analogue Scales (ranging from 0 mm to 100 mm)
  • Change in fullness rating
    • Time Frame: Weeks 1, 2, 3, 4
    • Difference between post-meal and pre-meal fullness measured by Visual Analogue Scales (ranging from 0 mm to 100 mm)
  • Change in test meal prospective consumption rating
    • Time Frame: Weeks 1, 2, 3, 4
    • Difference in prospective consumption measured by Visual Analogue Scales (ranging from 0 mm to 100 mm)
  • Change in test meal fillingness rating
    • Time Frame: Weeks 1, 2, 3, 4
    • Difference in fillingness measured by Visual Analogue Scales (ranging from 0 mm to 100 mm)
  • Change in test meal palatability rating
    • Time Frame: Weeks 1, 2, 3, 4
    • Difference in palatability of the test meal measured by Visual Analogue Scales (ranging from 0 mm to 100 mm)
  • Change in estimation of proportion of test meal consumed
    • Time Frame: Weeks 1, 2, 3, 4
    • Difference in estimation of proportion of test meal consumed measured by Visual Analogue Scales (ranging from 0 mm to 100 mm)
  • Change in estimation of energy content of test meal consumed
    • Time Frame: Weeks 1, 2, 3, 4
    • Difference in estimation of energy content of test meal consumed measured by Visual Analogue Scales (ranging from 0 mm to 100 mm)

Participating in This Clinical Trial

Inclusion Criteria

  • Ability to attend all test meals
  • Regularly eat 3 meals/day
  • Being willing to avoid alcohol the day before and during test days
  • Have a body mass index between 18.0 and 35.0 kg/meters squared
  • Being willing to refrain from eating after 10 pm the evening before test sessions

Exclusion Criteria

  • Being a smoker
  • Being an athlete in training
  • Being pregnant or breastfeeding at the time of screening
  • Have taken prescription or non-prescription drugs that may affect appetite or food intake within the last 3 months
  • Dislike or inability to eat the test foods
  • Currently dieting to gain or lose weight
  • Have a health condition that affects appetite
  • Have participated in a similar study in our lab in the past year
  • Being a student, faculty, or staff member in nutritional sciences or psychology

Gender Eligibility: All

Minimum Age: 18 Years

Maximum Age: 70 Years

Are Healthy Volunteers Accepted: No

Investigator Details

  • Lead Sponsor
    • Penn State University
  • Provider of Information About this Clinical Study
    • Principal Investigator: Barbara J. Rolls, Professor of Nutrition and Director of the Laboratory for the Study of Human Ingestive Behavior – Penn State University
  • Overall Contact(s)
    • Christine Sanchez, MPH, 814-863-2877, cqv5011@psu.edu

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