Passive Immunity Trial of Nashville II for COVID-19

Overview

The purpose of this study is to test the safety and efficacy of convalescent donor plasma to treat COVID-19 in hospitalized adults in a randomized, placebo-controlled setting. The effect of convalescent plasma will be compared to placebo on clinical outcomes, measured using the COVID Ordinal Outcomes Scale at Day 15, among adults with COVID-19 requiring hospitalization.

Full Title of Study: “A Randomized, Controlled Clinical Trial to Test the Safety and Efficacy of Convalescent Donor Plasma to Treat COVID-19 in Hospitalized Adults”

Study Type

  • Study Type: Interventional
  • Study Design
    • Allocation: Randomized
    • Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
    • Primary Purpose: Treatment
    • Masking: Triple (Participant, Care Provider, Outcomes Assessor)
  • Study Primary Completion Date: April 2021

Detailed Description

After being informed about the study and potential risks, participants confirmed to meet all eligibility criteria who have provided informed consent will be randomized 1:1 to convalescent plasma versus placebo. Transfusion of convalescent plasma or placebo will be administered by clinical or research personnel while the patient is hospitalized on Study Day 0. On Study Days 1-7, participants will be monitored for adverse reactions to the transfusion. Research personnel will also assess patients at Day 14 and Day 28; these assessments will be completed by phone if the participant has been discharged from the hospital.

Interventions

  • Biological: pathogen reduced SARS-CoV-2 convalescent plasma
    • Convalescent COVID-19 donor plasma is the liquid part of blood that is collected from patients who have recovered from COVID-19 infection. This plasma contains SARS-CoV-2 specific antibodies that may help fight the infection.
  • Biological: Placebo
    • Lactated Ringer’s solution with multivitamins

Arms, Groups and Cohorts

  • Experimental: pathogen reduced SARS-CoV-2 convalescent plasma
    • Transfusion of convalescent plasma will be administered by clinical or research personnel while the participant is hospitalized on Study Day 0. Plasma will be administered at a rate of 500 mL/hour and will be administered within 12 hours of randomization.
  • Placebo Comparator: Placebo
    • Participants randomized to the control group will receive 250mL of Lactate Ringers containing multivitamins intravenously on Day 1 as a placebo.

Clinical Trial Outcome Measures

Primary Measures

  • COVID Ordinal Outcomes Scale:Day 15
    • Time Frame: Study Day 15
    • Death Hospitalized on invasive mechanical ventilation or ECMO Hospitalized on non-invasive ventilation or high flow nasal cannula Hospitalized on supplemental oxygen Hospitalized not on supplemental oxygen Not hospitalized with limitation in activity (continued symptoms) Not hospitalized without limitation in activity (no symptoms)

Secondary Measures

  • All-location, all-cause 14-day mortality
    • Time Frame: Baseline to Study Day 14
    • All-location, all-cause 14-day mortality
  • All-location, all-cause 28-day mortality
    • Time Frame: Baseline to Study Day 28
    • All-location, all-cause 28-day mortality
  • COVID Ordinal Outcomes Scale Day 3
    • Time Frame: Baseline to Study Day 3
    • Death Hospitalized on invasive mechanical ventilation or ECMO Hospitalized on non-invasive ventilation or high flow nasal cannula Hospitalized on supplemental oxygen Hospitalized not on supplemental oxygen Not hospitalized with limitation in activity (continued symptoms) Not hospitalized without limitation in activity (no symptoms)
  • COVID Ordinal Outcomes Scale Day 8
    • Time Frame: Study Day 8
    • Death Hospitalized on invasive mechanical ventilation or ECMO Hospitalized on non-invasive ventilation or high flow nasal cannula Hospitalized on supplemental oxygen Hospitalized not on supplemental oxygen Not hospitalized with limitation in activity (continued symptoms) Not hospitalized without limitation in activity (no symptoms)
  • COVID Ordinal Outcomes Scale Day 29
    • Time Frame: Study Day 29
    • Death Hospitalized on invasive mechanical ventilation or ECMO Hospitalized on non-invasive ventilation or high flow nasal cannula Hospitalized on supplemental oxygen Hospitalized not on supplemental oxygen Not hospitalized with limitation in activity (continued symptoms) Not hospitalized without limitation in activity (no symptoms)
  • Composite of death or receipt of ECMO through Day 28
    • Time Frame: Baseline to Day 28
    • Number of participants that died or received ECMO
  • Oxygen-free days through Day 28
    • Time Frame: Baseline to Day 28
    • Number of days without use of oxygen
  • Vasopressor-free days through Day 28
    • Time Frame: Baseline to Day 28
    • Number of days without use of vasopressors
  • Ventilator-free days through Day 28
    • Time Frame: Baseline to Day 28
    • Number of days without use of a ventilator
  • ICU-free days through Day 28
    • Time Frame: Baseline to Day 28
    • Number of days outside of ICU
  • Hospital-free days through Day 28
    • Time Frame: Baseline to Day 28
    • Number of days outside of the hospital

Participating in This Clinical Trial

Inclusion Criteria

  • Age ≥18 years
  • Currently hospitalized or in an emergency department with anticipated hospitalization.
  • Symptoms of acute respiratory infection, defined as one or more of the following: cough, fever (> 37.5° C / 99.5° F), shortness of breath
  • Laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection within the past 10 days

Exclusion Criteria

  • Prisoner
  • Unable to randomize within 14 days after onset of acute respiratory infection symptoms
  • Unable to randomize within 48 hours after hospital arrival
  • Inability to be contacted on Day 29-36 for clinical outcome assessment
  • Receipt of pooled immunoglobulin in the past 30 days
  • Contraindications to transfusion or history of prior reactions to transfusion blood products
  • Previous enrollment in this trial

Gender Eligibility: All

Minimum Age: 18 Years

Maximum Age: N/A

Are Healthy Volunteers Accepted: No

Investigator Details

  • Lead Sponsor
    • Vanderbilt University Medical Center
  • Collaborator
    • Dolly Parton
  • Provider of Information About this Clinical Study
    • Principal Investigator: Todd Rice, Associate Professor of Medicine – Vanderbilt University Medical Center
  • Overall Official(s)
    • Todd Rice, MD, Principal Investigator, Vanderbilt University Medical Center
  • Overall Contact(s)
    • Amanda J Bistran-Hall, (615) 875-8531, amanda.j.bistran-hall@vumc.org

References

Del Rio C, Malani PN. COVID-19-New Insights on a Rapidly Changing Epidemic. JAMA. 2020 Feb 28. doi: 10.1001/jama.2020.3072. [Epub ahead of print]

Fauci AS, Lane HC, Redfield RR. Covid-19 – Navigating the Uncharted. N Engl J Med. 2020 Mar 26;382(13):1268-1269. doi: 10.1056/NEJMe2002387. Epub 2020 Feb 28.

Cao B, Wang Y, Wen D, Liu W, Wang J, Fan G, Ruan L, Song B, Cai Y, Wei M, Li X, Xia J, Chen N, Xiang J, Yu T, Bai T, Xie X, Zhang L, Li C, Yuan Y, Chen H, Li H, Huang H, Tu S, Gong F, Liu Y, Wei Y, Dong C, Zhou F, Gu X, Xu J, Liu Z, Zhang Y, Li H, Shang L, Wang K, Li K, Zhou X, Dong X, Qu Z, Lu S, Hu X, Ruan S, Luo S, Wu J, Peng L, Cheng F, Pan L, Zou J, Jia C, Wang J, Liu X, Wang S, Wu X, Ge Q, He J, Zhan H, Qiu F, Guo L, Huang C, Jaki T, Hayden FG, Horby PW, Zhang D, Wang C. A Trial of Lopinavir-Ritonavir in Adults Hospitalized with Severe Covid-19. N Engl J Med. 2020 May 7;382(19):1787-1799. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2001282. Epub 2020 Mar 18.

Casadevall A, Scharff MD. Return to the past: the case for antibody-based therapies in infectious diseases. Clin Infect Dis. 1995 Jul;21(1):150-61. Review.

Casadevall A, Dadachova E, Pirofski LA. Passive antibody therapy for infectious diseases. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2004 Sep;2(9):695-703. Review.

Sahr F, Ansumana R, Massaquoi TA, Idriss BR, Sesay FR, Lamin JM, Baker S, Nicol S, Conton B, Johnson W, Abiri OT, Kargbo O, Kamara P, Goba A, Russell JB, Gevao SM. Evaluation of convalescent whole blood for treating Ebola Virus Disease in Freetown, Sierra Leone. J Infect. 2017 Mar;74(3):302-309. doi: 10.1016/j.jinf.2016.11.009. Epub 2016 Nov 17.

Arabi YM, Hajeer AH, Luke T, Raviprakash K, Balkhy H, Johani S, Al-Dawood A, Al-Qahtani S, Al-Omari A, Al-Hameed F, Hayden FG, Fowler R, Bouchama A, Shindo N, Al-Khairy K, Carson G, Taha Y, Sadat M, Alahmadi M. Feasibility of Using Convalescent Plasma Immunotherapy for MERS-CoV Infection, Saudi Arabia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016 Sep;22(9):1554-61. doi: 10.3201/eid2209.151164.

Zhang JS, Chen JT, Liu YX, Zhang ZS, Gao H, Liu Y, Wang X, Ning Y, Liu YF, Gao Q, Xu JG, Qin C, Dong XP, Yin WD. A serological survey on neutralizing antibody titer of SARS convalescent sera. J Med Virol. 2005 Oct;77(2):147-50.

Li Q, Guan X, Wu P, Wang X, Zhou L, Tong Y, Ren R, Leung KSM, Lau EHY, Wong JY, Xing X, Xiang N, Wu Y, Li C, Chen Q, Li D, Liu T, Zhao J, Liu M, Tu W, Chen C, Jin L, Yang R, Wang Q, Zhou S, Wang R, Liu H, Luo Y, Liu Y, Shao G, Li H, Tao Z, Yang Y, Deng Z, Liu B, Ma Z, Zhang Y, Shi G, Lam TTY, Wu JT, Gao GF, Cowling BJ, Yang B, Leung GM, Feng Z. Early Transmission Dynamics in Wuhan, China, of Novel Coronavirus-Infected Pneumonia. N Engl J Med. 2020 Mar 26;382(13):1199-1207. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2001316. Epub 2020 Jan 29.

Zhu N, Zhang D, Wang W, Li X, Yang B, Song J, Zhao X, Huang B, Shi W, Lu R, Niu P, Zhan F, Ma X, Wang D, Xu W, Wu G, Gao GF, Tan W; China Novel Coronavirus Investigating and Research Team. A Novel Coronavirus from Patients with Pneumonia in China, 2019. N Engl J Med. 2020 Feb 20;382(8):727-733. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2001017. Epub 2020 Jan 24.

Perlman S. Another Decade, Another Coronavirus. N Engl J Med. 2020 Feb 20;382(8):760-762. doi: 10.1056/NEJMe2001126. Epub 2020 Jan 24.

Su S, Wong G, Shi W, Liu J, Lai ACK, Zhou J, Liu W, Bi Y, Gao GF. Epidemiology, Genetic Recombination, and Pathogenesis of Coronaviruses. Trends Microbiol. 2016 Jun;24(6):490-502. doi: 10.1016/j.tim.2016.03.003. Epub 2016 Mar 21. Review.

Cui J, Li F, Shi ZL. Origin and evolution of pathogenic coronaviruses. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2019 Mar;17(3):181-192. doi: 10.1038/s41579-018-0118-9. Review.

Cheng PK, Wong DA, Tong LK, Ip SM, Lo AC, Lau CS, Yeung EY, Lim WW. Viral shedding patterns of coronavirus in patients with probable severe acute respiratory syndrome. Lancet. 2004 May 22;363(9422):1699-700.

Hui DS, Azhar EI, Kim YJ, Memish ZA, Oh MD, Zumla A. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus: risk factors and determinants of primary, household, and nosocomial transmission. Lancet Infect Dis. 2018 Aug;18(8):e217-e227. doi: 10.1016/S1473-3099(18)30127-0. Epub 2018 Apr 18. Review.

Wang Y, Liu Y, Liu L, Wang X, Luo N, Li L. Clinical Outcomes in 55 Patients With Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 Who Were Asymptomatic at Hospital Admission in Shenzhen, China. J Infect Dis. 2020 May 11;221(11):1770-1774. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiaa119.

Wu C, Chen X, Cai Y, Xia J, Zhou X, Xu S, Huang H, Zhang L, Zhou X, Du C, Zhang Y, Song J, Wang S, Chao Y, Yang Z, Xu J, Zhou X, Chen D, Xiong W, Xu L, Zhou F, Jiang J, Bai C, Zheng J, Song Y. Risk Factors Associated With Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome and Death in Patients With Coronavirus Disease 2019 Pneumonia in Wuhan, China. JAMA Intern Med. 2020 Mar 13. doi: 10.1001/jamainternmed.2020.0994. [Epub ahead of print]

Arentz M, Yim E, Klaff L, Lokhandwala S, Riedo FX, Chong M, Lee M. Characteristics and Outcomes of 21 Critically Ill Patients With COVID-19 in Washington State. JAMA. 2020 Mar 19. doi: 10.1001/jama.2020.4326. [Epub ahead of print]

Wilson N, Kvalsvig A, Barnard LT, Baker MG. Case-Fatality Risk Estimates for COVID-19 Calculated by Using a Lag Time for Fatality. Emerg Infect Dis. 2020 Jun;26(6):1339-1441. doi: 10.3201/eid2606.200320. Epub 2020 Jun 17.

Niewiesk S. Maternal antibodies: clinical significance, mechanism of interference with immune responses, and possible vaccination strategies. Front Immunol. 2014 Sep 16;5:446. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2014.00446. eCollection 2014. Review.

Casadevall A. Passive antibody therapies: progress and continuing challenges. Clin Immunol. 1999 Oct;93(1):5-15. Review.

Hung IF, To KK, Lee CK, Lee KL, Chan K, Yan WW, Liu R, Watt CL, Chan WM, Lai KY, Koo CK, Buckley T, Chow FL, Wong KK, Chan HS, Ching CK, Tang BS, Lau CC, Li IW, Liu SH, Chan KH, Lin CK, Yuen KY. Convalescent plasma treatment reduced mortality in patients with severe pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 virus infection. Clin Infect Dis. 2011 Feb 15;52(4):447-56. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciq106. Epub 2011 Jan 19.

Zhou B, Zhong N, Guan Y. Treatment with convalescent plasma for influenza A (H5N1) infection. N Engl J Med. 2007 Oct 4;357(14):1450-1.

Wu XX, Gao HN, Wu HB, Peng XM, Ou HL, Li LJ. Successful treatment of avian-origin influenza A (H7N9) infection using convalescent plasma. Int J Infect Dis. 2015 Dec;41:3-5. doi: 10.1016/j.ijid.2015.10.009. Epub 2015 Oct 23.

Kraft CS, Hewlett AL, Koepsell S, Winkler AM, Kratochvil CJ, Larson L, Varkey JB, Mehta AK, Lyon GM 3rd, Friedman-Moraco RJ, Marconi VC, Hill CE, Sullivan JN, Johnson DW, Lisco SJ, Mulligan MJ, Uyeki TM, McElroy AK, Sealy T, Campbell S, Spiropoulou C, Ströher U, Crozier I, Sacra R, Connor MJ Jr, Sueblinvong V, Franch HA, Smith PW, Ribner BS; Nebraska Biocontainment Unit and the Emory Serious Communicable Diseases Unit. The Use of TKM-100802 and Convalescent Plasma in 2 Patients With Ebola Virus Disease in the United States. Clin Infect Dis. 2015 Aug 15;61(4):496-502. doi: 10.1093/cid/civ334. Epub 2015 Apr 22.

Cheng Y, Wong R, Soo YO, Wong WS, Lee CK, Ng MH, Chan P, Wong KC, Leung CB, Cheng G. Use of convalescent plasma therapy in SARS patients in Hong Kong. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2005 Jan;24(1):44-6.

Yeh KM, Chiueh TS, Siu LK, Lin JC, Chan PK, Peng MY, Wan HL, Chen JH, Hu BS, Perng CL, Lu JJ, Chang FY. Experience of using convalescent plasma for severe acute respiratory syndrome among healthcare workers in a Taiwan hospital. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2005 Nov;56(5):919-22. Epub 2005 Sep 23.

Casadevall A, Pirofski LA. The convalescent sera option for containing COVID-19. J Clin Invest. 2020 Apr 1;130(4):1545-1548. doi: 10.1172/JCI138003.

Zhang B, Liu S, Tan T, Huang W, Dong Y, Chen L, Chen Q, Zhang L, Zhong Q, Zhang X, Zou Y, Zhang S. Treatment With Convalescent Plasma for Critically Ill Patients With Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 Infection. Chest. 2020 Jul;158(1):e9-e13. doi: 10.1016/j.chest.2020.03.039. Epub 2020 Mar 31.

Shen C, Wang Z, Zhao F, Yang Y, Li J, Yuan J, Wang F, Li D, Yang M, Xing L, Wei J, Xiao H, Yang Y, Qu J, Qing L, Chen L, Xu Z, Peng L, Li Y, Zheng H, Chen F, Huang K, Jiang Y, Liu D, Zhang Z, Liu Y, Liu L. Treatment of 5 Critically Ill Patients With COVID-19 With Convalescent Plasma. JAMA. 2020 Mar 27. doi: 10.1001/jama.2020.4783. [Epub ahead of print]

Lauer SA, Grantz KH, Bi Q, Jones FK, Zheng Q, Meredith HR, Azman AS, Reich NG, Lessler J. The Incubation Period of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) From Publicly Reported Confirmed Cases: Estimation and Application. Ann Intern Med. 2020 May 5;172(9):577-582. doi: 10.7326/M20-0504. Epub 2020 Mar 10.

Wang D, Hu B, Hu C, Zhu F, Liu X, Zhang J, Wang B, Xiang H, Cheng Z, Xiong Y, Zhao Y, Li Y, Wang X, Peng Z. Clinical Characteristics of 138 Hospitalized Patients With 2019 Novel Coronavirus-Infected Pneumonia in Wuhan, China. JAMA. 2020 Feb 7. doi: 10.1001/jama.2020.1585. [Epub ahead of print]

Cao J, Hu X, Cheng W, Yu L, Tu WJ, Liu Q. Clinical features and short-term outcomes of 18 patients with corona virus disease 2019 in intensive care unit. Intensive Care Med. 2020 May;46(5):851-853. doi: 10.1007/s00134-020-05987-7. Epub 2020 Mar 2. Erratum in: Intensive Care Med. 2020 Apr 14;:.

Baden LR, Rubin EJ. Covid-19 – The Search for Effective Therapy. N Engl J Med. 2020 May 7;382(19):1851-1852. doi: 10.1056/NEJMe2005477. Epub 2020 Mar 18.

Xiao AT, Gao C, Zhang S. Profile of specific antibodies to SARS-CoV-2: The first report. J Infect. 2020 Jul;81(1):147-178. doi: 10.1016/j.jinf.2020.03.012. Epub 2020 Mar 21.

Haveri A, Smura T, Kuivanen S, Österlund P, Hepojoki J, Ikonen N, Pitkäpaasi M, Blomqvist S, Rönkkö E, Kantele A, Strandin T, Kallio-Kokko H, Mannonen L, Lappalainen M, Broas M, Jiang M, Siira L, Salminen M, Puumalainen T, Sane J, Melin M, Vapalahti O, Savolainen-Kopra C. Serological and molecular findings during SARS-CoV-2 infection: the first case study in Finland, January to February 2020. Euro Surveill. 2020 Mar;25(11). doi: 10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2020.25.11.2000266.

Guo L, Ren L, Yang S, Xiao M, Chang, Yang F, Dela Cruz CS, Wang Y, Wu C, Xiao Y, Zhang L, Han L, Dang S, Xu Y, Yang Q, Xu S, Zhu H, Xu Y, Jin Q, Sharma L, Wang L, Wang J. Profiling Early Humoral Response to Diagnose Novel Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19). Clin Infect Dis. 2020 Mar 21. pii: ciaa310. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciaa310. [Epub ahead of print]

Okba NMA, Müller MA, Li W, Wang C, GeurtsvanKessel CH, Corman VM, Lamers MM, Sikkema RS, de Bruin E, Chandler FD, Yazdanpanah Y, Le Hingrat Q, Descamps D, Houhou-Fidouh N, Reusken CBEM, Bosch BJ, Drosten C, Koopmans MPG, Haagmans BL. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2-Specific Antibody Responses in Coronavirus Disease Patients. Emerg Infect Dis. 2020 Jul;26(7):1478-1488. doi: 10.3201/eid2607.200841. Epub 2020 Jun 21.

Guan WJ, Ni ZY, Hu Y, Liang WH, Ou CQ, He JX, Liu L, Shan H, Lei CL, Hui DSC, Du B, Li LJ, Zeng G, Yuen KY, Chen RC, Tang CL, Wang T, Chen PY, Xiang J, Li SY, Wang JL, Liang ZJ, Peng YX, Wei L, Liu Y, Hu YH, Peng P, Wang JM, Liu JY, Chen Z, Li G, Zheng ZJ, Qiu SQ, Luo J, Ye CJ, Zhu SY, Zhong NS; China Medical Treatment Expert Group for Covid-19. Clinical Characteristics of Coronavirus Disease 2019 in China. N Engl J Med. 2020 Apr 30;382(18):1708-1720. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2002032. Epub 2020 Feb 28.

Wang Y, Fan G, Salam A, Horby P, Hayden FG, Chen C, Pan J, Zheng J, Lu B, Guo L, Wang C, Cao B. Comparative Effectiveness of Combined Favipiravir and Oseltamivir Therapy Versus Oseltamivir Monotherapy in Critically Ill Patients With Influenza Virus Infection. J Infect Dis. 2020 Apr 27;221(10):1688-1698. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiz656.

ARDS Definition Task Force, Ranieri VM, Rubenfeld GD, Thompson BT, Ferguson ND, Caldwell E, Fan E, Camporota L, Slutsky AS. Acute respiratory distress syndrome: the Berlin Definition. JAMA. 2012 Jun 20;307(23):2526-33. doi: 10.1001/jama.2012.5669.

Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes. KDIGO clinical practice guideline for acute kidney injury. Kidney Int. 2012;2: Suppl:1-138.

National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute PETAL Clinical Trials Network, Ginde AA, Brower RG, Caterino JM, Finck L, Banner-Goodspeed VM, Grissom CK, Hayden D, Hough CL, Hyzy RC, Khan A, Levitt JE, Park PK, Ringwood N, Rivers EP, Self WH, Shapiro NI, Thompson BT, Yealy DM, Talmor D. Early High-Dose Vitamin D(3) for Critically Ill, Vitamin D-Deficient Patients. N Engl J Med. 2019 Dec 26;381(26):2529-2540. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1911124. Epub 2019 Dec 11.

Whitehead J. Sample size calculations for ordered categorical data. Stat Med. 1993 Dec 30;12(24):2257-71. Erratum in: Stat Med 1994 Apr 30;13(8):871.

Wan Y, Shang J, Sun S, Tai W, Chen J, Geng Q, He L, Chen Y, Wu J, Shi Z, Zhou Y, Du L, Li F. Molecular Mechanism for Antibody-Dependent Enhancement of Coronavirus Entry. J Virol. 2020 Feb 14;94(5). pii: e02015-19. doi: 10.1128/JVI.02015-19. Print 2020 Feb 14.

Arabi Y, Balkhy H, Hajeer AH, Bouchama A, Hayden FG, Al-Omari A, Al-Hameed FM, Taha Y, Shindo N, Whitehead J, Merson L, AlJohani S, Al-Khairy K, Carson G, Luke TC, Hensley L, Al-Dawood A, Al-Qahtani S, Modjarrad K, Sadat M, Rohde G, Leport C, Fowler R. Feasibility, safety, clinical, and laboratory effects of convalescent plasma therapy for patients with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection: a study protocol. Springerplus. 2015 Nov 19;4:709. doi: 10.1186/s40064-015-1490-9. eCollection 2015.

Crowe JE Jr, Firestone CY, Murphy BR. Passively acquired antibodies suppress humoral but not cell-mediated immunity in mice immunized with live attenuated respiratory syncytial virus vaccines. J Immunol. 2001 Oct 1;167(7):3910-8.

National Bioethics Advisory Commitee (NBAC). Research Involving Persons with Mental Disorders That May Affect Decisionmaking Capacity. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1998.

Dresser R. Research Involving Persons with Mental Disabilities: A Review of Policy Issues and Proposals. Rockville: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1998:5-28.

Cognitively impaired subjects. American College of Physicians. Ann Intern Med. 1989 Nov 15;111(10):843-8. Review.

Clinical trials entries are delivered from the US National Institutes of Health and are not reviewed separately by this site. Please see the identifier information above for retrieving further details from the government database.

At TrialBulletin.com, we keep tabs on over 200,000 clinical trials in the US and abroad, using medical data supplied directly by the US National Institutes of Health. Please see the About and Contact page for details.