Factors Correlated With Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Children and Adolescents

Overview

Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) is a severe condition of sleep respiratory disorders. It is characterized by partial (hypopnea) or total (apnea) obstruction of the upper airways, negatively affecting the general and oral health of children and adolescents. The Dentistry plays a fundamental role in OSA diagnosis and early intervention, minimizing health damage and progression of the disease into adulthood. Current scientific evidence related to OSA and associated factors, as well as the prevalence and severity of the disease in children and adolescents is still scarce and presents divergences in these age groups. A retrospective cross-sectional study will be conducted to investigate the prevalence, severity and correlation between sociodemographic, behavioral, clinical and sleep quality related factors and OSA in children and adolescents diagnosed by polysomnography (PSG), using the criteria recommended by the American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM). The sample will consist of individuals who answered the questionnaires, performed the PSG at the Pelotas Sleep Institute and met the study inclusion criteria.

Full Title of Study: “Factors Correlated With Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Children and Adolescents Diagnosed by Polysomnography: Cross-sectional Study”

Study Type

  • Study Type: Observational
  • Study Design
    • Time Perspective: Cross-Sectional
  • Study Primary Completion Date: July 2020

Detailed Description

Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) is a severe condition among sleep respiratory disorders, characterized by intermittent episodes of partial (hypopnea) or total (apnea) obstruction of the upper airways during sleep. These obstructive episodes result in hypoxemia and hypercapnia, changes in intrathoracic pressure and sleep arousals, consequently leading sleep fragmentation and a non-restorative sleep pattern.

OSA affects 1 to 4% of the world's pediatric population, with a higher incidence between 2 to 8 years old, negatively affecting the general and oral health of children and adolescents. Studies show divergences regarding the prevalence among sexes, either showing similar rates for girls and boys, or a predilection of the disease for the male sex. Although scientific evidence reports known OSAs risk factors like adenotonsilar hypertrophy and obesity, there is still divergence of which associated characteristics are present in children and adolescents.

Diagnostic criteria of OSA in this population follows the recommendations of American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) through the International Classification of Sleep Disorders (ICSD-3), which determines full-night PSG as the gold standard test for the diagnosis and severity of OSA, as it promotes a quantitative and objective assessment of disturbances in breathing and sleep patterns. Although parents' report of child behavior and symptoms is essential for establishing the diagnosis of OSA, the factors evaluated in the anamnesis and clinical examination, in general, do not present adequate accuracy for the diagnosis of OSA. The use of clinical history and physical examination alone is not suitable for a definite diagnose of OSA when compared to PSG. Besides, most questionnaires used as alternative diagnostic methods do not meet the necessary criteria to be considered as acceptable tools in the identification of children and adolescents with OSA.

There is evidence in the literature regarding OSA's significant morbidity in children and adolescents, leading to cardiovascular, metabolic and neurocognitive complications, resulting in reduced quality of life. Also, OSA is associated with several craniofacial and dental changes, such as retrognathia, class II malocclusion, vertical face growth and sleep bruxism. It becomes clear the importance of the dentist in identifying factors associated with OSA in children and adolescents, this being the first step towards early and definitive diagnosis, followed by adequate treatment, to minimize the health damage in this population. Therefore, this study aims to study the risk factors correlated with OSA, the prevalence and severity of illness in children and adolescents, considering that the current scientific evidence is divergent.

A retrospective cross-sectional study will be conducted to investigate the prevalence, severity and associations between diagnosis by gold-standard PSG examination and the sociodemographic, clinical conditions, sleep quality and sleep structure of children and adolescents, following the recommended criteria by the AASM. Also, this study aims to evaluate the association of sleep bruxism (SB) and OSA. The sample will consist of participants, between 1 and 18 years, who were referred to Pelotas Sleep Institute, answered the questionnaires (self-reported or parent-reported) and performed PSG for diagnostic purposes.

Interventions

  • Diagnostic Test: Polysomnography
    • Polysomnography, referred to as type I, allows assessing several sleep physiologic parameters (eg, EEG, electrooculogram, electromyogram, electrocardiogram, airflow, respiratory effort, oxygen saturation), whereas audio-video recording enables to document tooth-grinding sounds and distinguishing between rhythmic masticatory muscle activity (RMMA) and orofacial and other muscular activity during sleep. The apnea and hypopnea index (AHI) is defined as the number of obstructive apneas and hypopneas per hour of sleep. Obstructive Sleep Apnea is defined in PSG when AHI≥1 and is divided into the following categories, according to severity: mild OSA (AHI 1-4.9), moderate OSA (AHI 5-9.9) and severe OSA (IAH≥10) (BERRY; BUDHIRAJA; GOTTLIEB, 2012). Based on the RMMA index (number of episodes per hour of sleep), sleep bruxism is diagnosed when episodes are greater than or equal to 2 (low-frequency SB, mild bruxism) or episodes are greater than or equal to 4 (high frequency SB, severe bruxism).

Arms, Groups and Cohorts

  • Children and adolescents submitted to PSG in sleep laboratory
    • Children (1 to 11 years) and adolescents (12 to 18 years), who were referred to a sleep laboratory and submitted to full-night polysomnography due to suspicious of sleep disorders.

Clinical Trial Outcome Measures

Primary Measures

  • Prevalence and severity of Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) in children and adolescents evaluated by polysomnography
    • Time Frame: two days
    • Children and adolescents will be evaluated to investigate the prevalence and severity of OSA, according to the criteria of de American Association of Sleep Medicine. Participants will be diagnosed with OSA if they present: a) self-report or parent-report of snoring or difficulty breathing during sleep; and b) one or more obstructive apneas per hour of sleep in polysomnography (AASM, 2014).

Secondary Measures

  • Correlation between sociodemographic and clinical condition variables in participants diagnosed with Obstructive Sleep Apnea by polysomnography
    • Time Frame: two days
    • The following sociodemographic data will be evaluated: 1.1 Age: participants between 1 to 11 years will be classified as children and participants between 12 to 18 years will be classified as adolescents; 1.2 Sex: participants will be classified as male or female; 1.3 Parental education: participants will be classified according to their parental education up to 8 years or less/equal to 8 years; 1.4 Family structure: participants will be classified according to their family structure as nuclear or non-nuclear. The following clinical condition data will be evaluated: 1.5 Body mass index (BMI): children and adolescents will be classified as obese/ overweight/underweight/ (≥ 95th percentile/ 85th to < 95th percentile/< 5th percentile, respectively) or normal weight (5th to < 85th percentile), according to World Health Organization Child Growth Standards (WHO, 2007).
  • Correlation between sleep quality variables in participants diagnosed with Obstructive Sleep Apnea by polysomnography
    • Time Frame: two days
    • Sleep Quality will be evaluated with the following questions: Bedtime: how many hours does your child sleep (<8 hours or ≥8 hours); how long does it take to sleep (up to 15min, or >15 min); child resists going to bed at bedtime (no or yes); child feels anxiety or fear at bedtime (no or yes); Sleep behavior: child wakes up more than twice during the night (no or yes); child is restless and moves a lot during sleep (no or yes); child has suffocation or difficulty breathing during the night (no or yes); child sweats a lot during the night (no or yes); child grit his/her teeth while sleeping (no or yes); child has nightmares (no or yes); child snores during the night (no or yes) child has sleep enuresis (no or yes); Morning wake up: child has difficulty waking up (no or yes); child feels tired after waking up (no or yes); child is sleepy during the day (no or yes); child has headache in the morning (no or yes); child has mouth breathing during the day (no or yes).
  • Correlation between sleep structure variables in participants diagnosed with Obstructive Sleep Apnea by polysomnography
    • Time Frame: two days
    • Sleep structure was evaluated with the following polysomnography data: sleep onset latency in minutes, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep latency in minutes, wake up after sleep onset (WASO) in minutes, total sleep time in minutes, sleep efficiency (good >85% or bad <84.9%), non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep time in stages N1 (%), N2 (%), and N3 (%), rapid eye movement (REM) sleep time (%), arousal, respiratory disturbance index (RDI), index of apnea and hypopnea (IAH).
  • Correlation between Sleep Bruxism and Obstructive Sleep Apnea in children and adolescents evaluated by polysomnography
    • Time Frame: two days
    • Children and adolescents will be diagnosed with SB, according the criteria of de American Association of Sleep Medicine, if they present: a) regular or frequent tooth grinding sounds occurring during sleep; and b) transient morning jaw muscle pain or fatigue; and/or temporal headache (AASM, 2014).

Participating in This Clinical Trial

Inclusion Criteria

  • Children (1 to 11 years) and adolescents (12 to 18 years), who were referred to a sleep laboratory
  • Participants who performed polysomnography and answered questionnaires (self-reported or parent-reported) at Pelotas Sleep Institute.

Exclusion Criteria

  • Participants who present a history of syndromes, neuromuscular or neurological disorders;
  • Participants whose questionnaires were not completed.

Gender Eligibility: All

Minimum Age: 1 Year

Maximum Age: 18 Years

Investigator Details

  • Lead Sponsor
    • Federal University of Pelotas
  • Provider of Information About this Clinical Study
    • Principal Investigator: Noéli Boscato, PhD, PhD, Associate Professor, School of Dentistry – Federal University of Pelotas
  • Overall Official(s)
    • Noéli Boscato, PhD, Principal Investigator, Federal University of Pelotas

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