the Effect of Dexmedetomidine and Magnesium Sulfate in Open Resection of Pheochromocytoma

Overview

Pheochromocytoma (pheo) is a catecholamine secreting tumor arising from chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla in 90% of cases & in 10% is extra-adrenal arising from the sympathetic chain. It is malignant in 10% of cases, bilateral in 10% of patients & 10% of all pheo are inherited (Familial Pheo) as autosomal dominant either alone or as a part of multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) syndrome.In this prospective work, the investigators will try to compare the peri-operative hemodynamic course of Dexmedetomidine & magnesium sulphate (MgSo₄) infused patients with the traditional anesthetic technique (α₁ & β-adrenergic blockers plus vasodilators) during open surgical resection of Pheo. The investigators are aiming to check the safety & efficacy of the recommended technique on the peri-operative hemodynamic stability & controlling the hypertensive crisis during tumor manipulation.

Full Title of Study: “The Perioperative Use of Dexmedetomidine and Magnesium Sulfate Compared With Traditional Anesthetic Technique for Open Resection of Pheochromocytoma.”

Study Type

  • Study Type: Interventional
  • Study Design
    • Allocation: Randomized
    • Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
    • Primary Purpose: Prevention
    • Masking: Single (Participant)
  • Study Primary Completion Date: August 30, 2021

Detailed Description

Pheochromocytoma (pheo) is a catecholamine secreting tumor arising from chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla in 90% of cases & in 10% is extra-adrenal arising from the sympathetic chain. It is malignant in 10% of cases, bilateral in 10% of patients & 10% of all pheo are inherited (Familial Pheo) as autosomal dominant either alone or as a part of multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) syndrome.The anesthetic management of Pheo during surgical resection is usually challenging & faces many cardiovascular risks as tachycardia, arrhythmias, severe hypertension & may be pulmonary edema & profound hypotension after surgical devascularization of the tumor. These dangerous events are sequelae of catecholamine excess and often are refractory to management . The proper anesthetic control is based on the use of α₁ & β-adrenergic blockers (phenoxy-benzamine, phentolamine, propranolol, labetalol) and vasodilators such as glycerine trinitrate (GTN) & sodium nitroprusside (SNP) .The rational of using magnesium sulphate MgSo₄ infusion to control catecholamine levels & catecholamine-related crisis has been established in several clinical emergencies such as severe tetanus & preoperative management of pre-eclampsia & eclampsia . MgSo₄ beneficial cardiovascular effects may be attributed to its ability to reduce catecholamine release from the adrenal medulla & to reduce α-adrenergic receptors sensitivity to catecholamines . MgSo₄ is also a direct vasodilator & a potent anti-arrhythmic drug particularly with high circulatory catecholamine level . The safety of MgSo₄ in the routine clinical range of 2-4 mmol/Liter is well settled in many clinical works. There is strong evidence that the sympathetic nervous system is intact in Pheo patients & neurons-released noradrenaline plays a fundamental role in blood pressure BP regulation. Dexmedetomidine is a short acting & highly selective central α₂-agonist that inhibits neuronal firing & thereby induces analgesia, anxiolysis, bradycardia & hypotension. It has been tried to attenuate the sympathetic pressor effect of tracheal intubation, cardiac surgeries & emergence from anesthesia .The unique adventitious anesthetic pharmacology induces preoperative sedation, intra-operative hemodynamic stability beside reducing the anesthetic requirements and adding to post-operative analgesia . Its peri-operative use has been suggested in both pediatric & adult patients of Pheo. In this prospective work,the investigators tried to compare the peri-operative hemodynamic course of Dexmedetomidine & MgSo₄ infused patients with the traditional anesthetic technique (α₁ & β-adrenergic blockers plus vasodilators) during open surgical resection of Pheo. The investigators are aiming to check the safety & efficacy of this recommended technique on the peri-operative hemodynamic stability & controlling the hypertensive crisis during tumor manipulation.

Interventions

  • Drug: Dexmedetomidine
    • which in addition to the orally prescribed drugs; on admission to the ICU, the Pheo-patient has serum-Mg level measurement & a bolus of 40 mg/kg MgSo₄ is given I.V. & may be repeated until the therapeutic level of MgSo₄ 2-4 mmol/Liter is reached (7&10). Dexmedetomidine sedation is started the evening prior to surgery by loading dose of 1µg/Kg followed by 0.2-0.7 µg/Kg/hour according to each patient
  • Drug: General anesthetic
    • 1) Traditional group in which the patients̕ hemodynamic adjustment will be conducted using orally or IV α₁ & β-adrenergic blockers [Prazocin (minipress): 0.5-20 mg/day, Propranolol (Inderal) :10-360 mg/day, Bisoprolol (Concor): 2.5-20 mg/day, Atenolol (Tenormin): 25-100 mg/day &/or Labetalol (Trandate)200-600 mg/day, ACI & ACRB e.g. Tritace 2.5-10 mg/day & Atacand 4-16 mg/day]

Arms, Groups and Cohorts

  • Active Comparator: General Anesthesia
    • Traditional group in which the patients̕ hemodynamic adjustment will be conducted using orally or IV α₁ & β-adrenergic blockers [Prazosin (minipress): 0.5-20 mg/day, Propranolol (Inderal) :10-360 mg/day, Bisoprolol (Concor): 2.5-20 mg/day, Atenolol (Tenormin): 25-100 mg/day &/or Labetalol (Trandate)200-600 mg/day, Angiotensin Converting enzyme inhibitors ( ACE inhibitors ) & Angiotensin II receptor blockers ARBs e.g. Tritace 2.5-10 mg/day & Atacand 4-16 mg/day]
  • Active Comparator: Dexmedetomidine
    • Dexmedetomidine-Magnesium Sulfate (Dex-MgSo₄) group: in which in addition to the orally prescribed drugs; on admission to the ICU, the Pheo-patient has serum-Mg level measurement & a bolus of 40 mg/kg MgSo₄ is given I.V. & may be repeated until the therapeutic level of MgSo₄ 2-4 mmol/Liter is reached. Dexmedetomidine sedation is started the evening prior to surgery by loading dose of 1µg/Kg followed by 0.2-0.7 µg/Kg/hour according to each patient

Clinical Trial Outcome Measures

Primary Measures

  • The rate of Hypertensive crisis
    • Time Frame: 12 hours follow up
    • rise of B.P. more than 20% of base line

Participating in This Clinical Trial

Inclusion Criteria

  • Age 12-69 years – ASA physical status I &II – Surgically diagnosed pheochromocytoma, "unilateral or bilateral, adrenal or extra-adrenal". Diagnosis is confirmed radiologically with or without laboratory Vanillyl Mandelic Acid (VMA) level. – Accepted Echo-heart data (EF ≥ 55%, no serious valve lesion) apart from hypertensive concentric ventricular hypertrophy & diastolic dysfunction grade I &II. Exclusion Criteria:

  • Extremes of age – ASA III & IV – History of cardiac (MI & IHD) or cerebral (CVS) events – History of major reaction to the used drugs – History of major muscle, endocrinal or hematologic disorders – Pregnant and lactating women – Poor Echo-heart findings e.g. EF < 55%, severe valve lesions & severe pulmonary hypertension.

Gender Eligibility: All

Minimum Age: 12 Years

Maximum Age: 69 Years

Are Healthy Volunteers Accepted: No

Investigator Details

  • Lead Sponsor
    • National Cancer Institute, Egypt
  • Provider of Information About this Clinical Study
    • Principal Investigator: Ehab Hanafy Shaker, lecturer of anesthesia ,critical care and pain medicine – National Cancer Institute, Egypt
  • Overall Official(s)
    • Ehab H Shaker, MD, Principal Investigator, National Cancer Institute- Cairo University

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