Urinary Proteomics Combined With Home Blood Pressure Telemonitoring for Health Care Reform

Overview

UPRIGHT-HTM will compare risk stratification, treatment efficiency and health economic outcomes of a diagnostic approach based on home blood pressure telemonitoring combined with urinary proteomic profiling with home blood pressure telemonitoring alone

Full Title of Study: “Urinary Proteomics Combined With Home Blood Pressure Telemonitoring for Health Care Reform: a Randomised Controlled Trial”

Study Type

  • Study Type: Interventional
  • Study Design
    • Allocation: Randomized
    • Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
    • Primary Purpose: Diagnostic
    • Masking: Single (Outcomes Assessor)
  • Study Primary Completion Date: December 31, 2025

Detailed Description

Hypertension is by far the dominant reversible risk factor dwarfing most others in the pathogenesis of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and diastolic left ventricular dysfunction (DVD), two archetypes of chronic age-related diseases, which are rampant in ageing societies in epidemiological transition. Home blood pressure telemonitoring (HTM) is a recommended approach in the diagnosis and management of hypertension. Urinary peptidomic profiling (UPP) holds great promise in individualising prevention and treatment of CKD and DVD and associated complications, such as coronary heart disease. Making use of these modern technologies, UPRIGHT-HTM is an investigator-initiated randomised clinical trial with a patient-centred design, for the first time, comparing HTM combined UPP (experimental group) to HTM alone (control group) in risk profiling and as guide to starting or intensifying management of risk factors to prevent established disease. The trial will run in Europe, sub-Saharan Africa and South America. Eligible patients, aged 55-75 years old, are asymptomatic, but have three or more CKD- or DVD-related risk factors, preferably including hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, or both, and do have internet skills. The primary endpoint consists of a composite of new-onset intermediate endpoints (microalbuminuria, progression of CKD, diabetic or hypertensive retinopathy, electrocardiographic or echocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy or DVD and hard outcomes (cardiovascular mortality and non-fatal complications, including myocardial infarction, heart failure and stroke). Secondary objectives are demonstrating that combining HTM with UPP is feasible and cost-effective in a multicultural context, defining the molecular signatures of early CKD and DVD, and with help of stakeholders educating and empowering patients. Assuming an accrual time of 1 year, a median follow-up of 4 years, a 10% dropout rate, a 20% risk of the primary endpoint in the control group and 30% risk reduction in the experimental group, requires 1000 patients to be randomised in a 1:1 proportion with the two-sided alpha level and power set 0.05 and 0.80, respectively. The expected outcome is proving the superiority in terms of efficiency and cost-effectiveness of HTM combined with UPP vs HTM alone, which should lead to redesigning the clinical workflow, putting greater emphasis on preventing rather than curing established disease.

Interventions

  • Diagnostic Test: In-vitro urinary diagnostic test
    • Urinary proteomic profiling (UPP) using established multidimensional urinary markers for progression to CKD (CKD273), left ventricular dysfunction (HF1 and HF2) and coronary heart disease (CAD238 and ACSP75) – in-vitro test certified in Germany and by extension in the EU (DE/CA09/0829/IVD/001, DE/CA09/0829/IVD/005).

Arms, Groups and Cohorts

  • Experimental: HTM plus UPP
    • Urinary proteomic profiling administered on top of home blood pressure telemonitoring and guideline-endorsed non-pharmacological and pharmacological management of risk factors
  • Other: HTM alone
    • Home blood pressure telemonitoring administered on top of non-pharmacological and pharmacological management of risk factors

Clinical Trial Outcome Measures

Primary Measures

  • Primary composite endpoint
    • Time Frame: After a run-in period of 2 to 5 weeks to check the eligibility, patients will be randomized and followed up for 4 years
    • The primary endpoint is a composite of intermediary and “hard” cardiovascular-renal endpoints. The “intermediate endpoints” are diabetic nephropathy, progression to a higher CKD stage, doubling of serum creatinine, an eGFR decrease by 30% or more or eGFR declining below 45 ml/min/1.73 m2, new-onset hypertensive or diabetic retinopathy, electrocardiographic or echocardiographic left ventricle hypertrophy, and diastolic left ventricular dysfunction. The “hard” composite cardiovascular endpoint includes cardiovascular mortality, and nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal hospitalised heart failure, and nonfatal stroke, not including transient ischemic attack. The “hard” renal outcomes include macroalbuminuria, the need for renal-replacement therapy, and death to renal causes.
  • Change in serum creatinine (mg/dl)
    • Time Frame: After a run-in period of 2 to 5 weeks to check the eligibility, patients will be randomized and followed up for 4 years
    • The concentration of creatinine in serum, expressed in mg/dl, will be measured, using Jaffe’s method with modifications () in certified laboratories applying isotope-dilution mass spectrometry for calibration (Clin Chem 2006; 52: 5-18).
  • Change in eGFR (ml/min/1.73m2)
    • Time Frame: After a run-in period of 2 to 5 weeks to check the eligibility, patients will be randomized and followed up for 4 years
    • eGFR will be derived from the serum creatinine concentration by the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation (Ann Intern Med 2009; 150: 604-612) and expressed in ml/min/1.73 m2.
  • Progression of CKD
    • Time Frame: After a run-in period of 2 to 5 weeks to check the eligibility, patients will be randomized and followed up for 4 years
    • The National Kidney Foundation Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative guideline will be followed (Kidney Int Suppl 2013;3:1-150): eGFR ≥90, 60-89, 45-59, 30-44, 15-29 and <15 mL/min/1.73 m2 for Stage 1, 2, 3A, 3B, 4 and 5, respectively
  • Incidence of diabetic nephropathy
    • Time Frame: After a run-in period of 2 to 5 weeks to check the eligibility, patients will be randomized and followed up for 4 years
    • Microalbuminuria of 30 microgram per gram creatinine or more in two of three morning urine samples collected on three consecutive days.
  • Incidence of diabetic retinopathy
    • Time Frame: After a run-in period of 2 to 5 weeks to check the eligibility, patients will be randomized and followed up for 4 years
    • Non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR): early NPDR, at least one microaneurysm ; moderate NDPR, characterized by multiple microaneurysms, dot-and-blot hemorrhages, venous beading, and/or cotton wool spots; severe NPDR, diffuse intraretinal hemorrhages and microaneurysms in four quadrants, venous beading in two or more quadrants, or severe intraretinal microvascular abnormalities Proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR): fibrovascular proliferation extending beyond the internal limiting membrane; vitreous hemorrhage; retinal detachment, macular edema (https:// https://webeye.ophth.uiowa.edu/eyeforum/tutorials/Diabetic-Retinopathy-Med-Students/Classification.htm)
  • Incidence of hypertensive retinopathy
    • Time Frame: After a run-in period of 2 to 5 weeks to check the eligibility, patients will be randomized and followed up for 4 years
    • Grade 1: mild narrowing and tortuosity of the retinal arterioles; Grade 2: definite focal retinal arteriolar narrowing and arteriovenous nipping; Grade 3: retinal hemorrhages and cotton wool spots; Grade 4: papilledema
  • Incidence of electrocardiographic LV hypertrophy
    • Time Frame: After a run-in period of 2 to 5 weeks to check the eligibility, patients will be randomized and followed up for 4 years
    • The Sokolow-Lyon index is the sum of the S-wave in V1 and the R wave in V5 or V6, whichever is greater; the threshold value is 3.5 mV (PMID 31352838, 19015402, 28789616); in regularly calibrated ECGs, 1 mV is 10 mm along the vertical axis; The Cornell product is the sum of RaVL and RV5 with 6 mV added for women, multiplied by the QRS duration in milliseconds; the cut-off value is 2440 mV × ms (PMID 31352838, 19015402, 28789616); Increased R-wave in aVL: the threshold values is 1.1 mV; ST segment down sloping in V4-V6 with T-top inversion. Based on these criteria the investigators will classify patients as having or not having electrocariographic LV hypertrophy
  • Incidence of echocardiographic LV hypertrophy
    • Time Frame: After a run-in period of 2 to 5 weeks to check the eligibility, patients will be randomized and followed up for 4 years
    • Guidelines should be applied for acquisition and off-line analysis of the echocardiographic imaging studies (PMID 15452478, 19187853, 27037982); LV mass will be calculated using a formula validated by necropsy (PMID 2936235, 15452478); LVM = 0.8 × (1.04 × (EDD + IVS + LPW)3 – EDD)3) + 0.6; expressed in gram; LV mass will be indexed to body surface; the threshold values are ≥95/≥115 g/m2 in women/men.
  • Incidence of diastolic LV dysfunction
    • Time Frame: After a run-in period of 2 to 5 weeks to check the eligibility, patients will be randomized and followed up for 4 years
    • Diastolic LV dysfunction will be defined as an abnormally low age-specific transmitral E/A ratio, indicative of impaired relaxation, or a mildly-to-moderately elevated left ventricular filling pressure (E/e’ >8.5) with normal or decreased age-specific E/A ratio. The ejection fraction should be over 50% (Circ Heart Fail 2009;2: 105-112).
  • Incidence of CV mortality
    • Time Frame: After a run-in period of 2 to 5 weeks to check the eligibility, patients will be randomized and followed up for 4 years
    • ICD10 codes I00-I99
  • Incidence of nonfatal myocardial infarction
    • Time Frame: After a run-in period of 2 to 5 weeks to check the eligibility, patients will be randomized and followed up for 4 years
    • ICD10 codes I21,I22
  • Incidence of nonfatal heart failure
    • Time Frame: After a run-in period of 2 to 5 weeks to check the eligibility, patients will be randomized and followed up for 4 years
    • ICD10 code I50
  • Incidence of nonfatal stroke
    • Time Frame: After a run-in period of 2 to 5 weeks to check the eligibility, patients will be randomized and followed up for 4 years
    • ICD10 codes I60-I63
  • Incidence of CKD
    • Time Frame: After a run-in period of 2 to 5 weeks to check the eligibility, patients will be randomized and followed up for 4 years
    • ICD10 codes N17, N18

Secondary Measures

  • EQ-5D (scale ranging from 0 [worst possible] to 100 [best possible])
    • Time Frame: After a run-in period of 2 to 5 weeks to check the eligibility, patients will be randomized and followed up for 4 years.
    • Quality of life will be assessed using the EQ-5D quality of life questionnaire (http://www.euroqol.org)
  • Health-economic analysis
    • Time Frame: After a run-in period of 2 to 5 weeks to check the eligibility, patients will be randomized and followed up for 4 years.
    • For health-economic evaluation, the EQ-5D patient-administered questionnaire (https://www.euroqol.org) is of particular importance, as Quality Adjusted Life Years (QALYs) can be generated from this simple instrument

Participating in This Clinical Trial

Inclusion Criteria

  • Patients must have at least three additional guideline-defined risk factors, preferably including hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), or both; – Patients should be willing patients to engage for the duration of the study in home blood pressure telemonitoring (1 reading per day); – Patients must have an email address and internet access via smartphone, tablet, or laptop or desktop computer; – Patients should comply with the study protocol during the run-in phase. Exclusion Criteria:

  • Type 1 diabetes mellitus; – Absence of a practicable echocardiographic window; – Previous or concurrent severe cardiovascular or non-cardiovascular disease; – Cancer within 5 years of enrolment; – Suspected substance abuse; – Psychiatric illness; – Use of nephrotoxic drugs; – Particpation in another clinical study.

Gender Eligibility: All

Minimum Age: 55 Years

Maximum Age: 75 Years

Are Healthy Volunteers Accepted: No

Investigator Details

  • Lead Sponsor
    • KU Leuven
  • Collaborator
    • Alliance for the Promotion of Preventive Medicine
  • Provider of Information About this Clinical Study
    • Principal Investigator: Jan A. Staessen, Professor of Medicine – KU Leuven
  • Overall Official(s)
    • Lutgarde Thijs, MSc, Principal Investigator, University of Leuven
  • Overall Contact(s)
    • Jan A Staessen, MD, PhD, +32 47 632 4928, jan.staessen@med.kuleuven.be

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