A Comparison of CPR Outcomes Between Traditional and Endomorphic Manikins With and Without Equipment


The study's research design is a randomized experiment. 50 emergency responders (emergency medical responders, emergency medical technicians, advanced emergency medical technicians, and paramedics) will be recruited for this research. All data collection will take place in Lab 14 of the Benson Bunker Fieldhouse or a professional, confidential location of the participant's choosing.

Prior to CPR performance, participants will be given an informed consent form to sign. The form will be explained in detail by the researcher collecting data. After obtaining informed consent, participants will be asked to fill out a demographic questionnaire to collect information such as age, gender, years of emergency responder experience/employment, and years of CPR certification. Demographic information provided by participants will be utilized in data analysis. The demographics form should take approximately five minutes to complete. Participants will be randomly assigned to the four trials they will partake in and instructed via oral script (one for over and one for under football shoulder pads) to perform four-trials total of three-minute single-rescuer CPR on both a traditional CPR manikin and "Fat Old Fred" (bariatric) CPR manikin. CPR must be performed in accordance with the American Heart Association's 2015 CPR Guidelines and participants will use a CPRmeter 2 device to collect data to determine the quality of CPR components (chest compression depth/recoil, compression rate, CPR compression duration, mean depth, mean rate, and total number of compressions). The entire study session should take 25 to 30 minutes to complete.

Full Title of Study: “A Comparison of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Outcomes Between Traditional and Endomorphic Manikins”

Study Type

  • Study Type: Interventional
  • Study Design
    • Allocation: Randomized
    • Intervention Model: Factorial Assignment
    • Primary Purpose: Treatment
    • Masking: None (Open Label)
  • Study Primary Completion Date: March 16, 2020


  • Other: Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation
    • Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation based on 2015 American Heart Association guidelines with and without protective equipment on traditional and endomorphic manikins

Arms, Groups and Cohorts

  • Active Comparator: Traditional manikin
    • CPR performed on a traditional manikin
  • Experimental: Traditional manikin with athletic equipment
    • CPR performed on a traditional manikin wearing athletic equipment
  • Experimental: Bariatric manikin
    • CPR performed on a bariatric manikin
  • Experimental: Bariatric manikin with athletic equipment
    • CPR performed on a bariatric manikin wearing athletic equipment

Clinical Trial Outcome Measures

Primary Measures

  • Compression depth %
    • Time Frame: 2 minutes
    • percent of time chest is compressed to adequate depth
  • Compression rate
    • Time Frame: 2 minutes
    • number of compressions per minute
  • Chest recoil
    • Time Frame: 2 minutes
    • percent of time chest fully recoils
  • Compression depth
    • Time Frame: 2 minutes
    • average depth of compressions
  • Compression rate %
    • Time Frame: 2 minutes
    • percent of time compressions are performed at an adequate rate

Participating in This Clinical Trial

Inclusion Criteria

  • Emergency responders employed through the ambulance stations located in North Dakota and Minnesota
  • Current CPR/first-aid certification
  • Active clinician, educator, or administrator.

Exclusion Criteria

  • Cardiovascular conditions inhibiting CPR performance
  • Respiratory conditions inhibiting CPR performance
  • Musculoskeletal conditions inhibiting CPR performance

Gender Eligibility: All

Minimum Age: 18 Years

Maximum Age: 65 Years

Are Healthy Volunteers Accepted: Accepts Healthy Volunteers

Investigator Details

  • Lead Sponsor
    • North Dakota State University
  • Provider of Information About this Clinical Study
    • Sponsor

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