Validity and Reliability of the Turkish Version of the Head and Neck Cancer Inventory


The primary treatment option of many patients with head and neck cancer is surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. In the literature, functional problems that occur after surgical interventions applied to head and neck cancer patients are frequently mentioned. Morbidities resulting from the combined application of radiotherapy and chemotherapy are based on more anecdotal information and critical data on long-term functional outcomes in this patient group are scarce. The aim of this study is to make the validity, reliability and cultural adaptation of the Head and Neck Cancer Inventory in Turkish.

Study Type

  • Study Type: Observational
  • Study Design
    • Time Perspective: Prospective
  • Study Primary Completion Date: December 2020

Detailed Description

In the literature, there are general cancer scales developed to evaluate the quality of life of head and neck cancer patients and sub scales associated with head and neck cancers developed in addition to these scales. In addition, scales specific to head and neck cancers have also been developed. However, previous research shows that even general health status scales or cancer-specific scales cannot determine outcomes related to many head and neck cancer patients. In addition, items containing multiple functions and patients' attitudes (behaviors) cannot be analyzed separately in any of the scales specific to head and neck cancer. Very few surveys contain items related to patients' attitudes (behaviors), or the number of items related to this topic is small because most of these scales are functional items. Unlike its counterparts in the literature, Head and Neck Cancer Inventory evaluates the attitudes (behaviors) of patients associated with various functions in daily life. Head and Neck Cancer Inventory is the only scale in the literature that contains the basic features of the health conditions declared by the patient and has been developed specifically for head and neck cancer.


  • Other: Measurement of Quality of Life
    • Quality of life will be measured using Head and Neck Cancer Inventory and The Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy – Head and Neck Cancer Version 4

Arms, Groups and Cohorts

  • Head and Neck Cancer patients
    • Turkish patients diagnosed with Head and Neck Cancer

Clinical Trial Outcome Measures

Primary Measures

  • Head and Neck Cancer Inventory
    • Time Frame: At baseline
    • It is a scale consisting of 30 items in total, containing 4 main categories [speech (10 items), eating (10 items), aesthetics (2 items), social disorders (7 items)] evaluating the quality of life related to head and neck cancer and an additional item evaluating the overall quality of life. This inventory reflects both functionality (how functional the patient is) and attitudes (how satisfied is the patient’s functional level) using a 5-point Likert-type scale. This scale does not have a summary score representing all items, the score of 4 different categories can be calculated. The higher the scores, the better the quality of life [2].

Secondary Measures

  • The Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy – Head and Neck Cancer Version 4
    • Time Frame: At baseline
    • In addition to the 27-item Cancer Treatment Functional Evaluation-General (FACT-G) scale, this scale consists of 9 additional items specific to head and neck cancer. FACT G consists of 4 main categories that evaluate physical (7 items), social (7 items), emotional (6 items) and functional status (7 items). Each item is scored by patients with a Likert type classification ranging from 0 (none) to 4 (too many). Points are calculated separately for each category. A summary score is also calculated for FACT-G and total FACT-H & N [3]. The questionnaire is available in Turkish version [9].

Participating in This Clinical Trial

Inclusion Criteria

  • Voluntarily accepting to participate in the study
  • Patients whose native language is Turkish
  • Patients diagnosed with head and neck cancer

Exclusion Criteria

  • Patients whose health conditions are too bad to fill the scale
  • Having a serious mental disorder or dementia

Gender Eligibility: All

Minimum Age: 18 Years

Maximum Age: 80 Years

Are Healthy Volunteers Accepted: No

Investigator Details

  • Lead Sponsor
    • Izmir Bakircay University
  • Collaborator
    • Gazi University
  • Provider of Information About this Clinical Study
    • Principal Investigator: Kadirhan Ozdemir, PT, PhD., Head of Geriatric Rehabilitation Department – Izmir Bakircay University
  • Overall Contact(s)
    • Kadirhan Ozdemir, PhD., +905069439059,


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