The Influence of Honey-flavored Yogurt on Low-grade Inflammation and Gut Health in Middle to Older Aged Women.

Overview

A randomized, double-blind, crossover dietary intervention trial will test the effects of 4 weeks of daily honey-flavored yogurt intake on markers of inflammation (Th17 cytokines) and oxidative stress (NOX2, UA, RSNO) and associative changes with microbial derived metabolites (SCFAs, BAs, ellagitannins), metabolism and the fecal microbiome. The above suite of selected markers will capture diet-induced systemic changes in inflammation and oxidative stress, while assessing associated microbial changes.

Study Type

  • Study Type: Interventional
  • Study Design
    • Allocation: Randomized
    • Intervention Model: Crossover Assignment
    • Primary Purpose: Prevention
    • Masking: Single (Participant)
  • Study Primary Completion Date: June 1, 2021

Detailed Description

Those qualified for enrollment will be randomized into a double-blind crossover study to consume 2 morning servings of a 0.6 cup (150g) of plain yogurt with : A) cane sugar added in an isocaloric level as the honey or, B) 1 tbsp of phenolic-rich honey for 4 weeks. A one-month washout between periods will be used. The participants will be instructed to consume one yogurt in replacement of or as part of breakfast, and as a late morning snack. They will also be instructed to not add any additional items to the yogurt. Therefore, each study participant will consume 2 tbsp. of honey a day for four weeks, which is a realistic amount typically consumed by honey users.

Interventions

  • Other: Honey sweetened yogurt
    • 2 tbsp. of daily honey intake in 1.2 cups of yogurt per day, split into two equal portions
  • Other: Sugar sweetened yogurt
    • sugar added, in an isocaloric fashion to the honey, to 1.2 cups of yogurt per day, split into two equal portions

Arms, Groups and Cohorts

  • Experimental: Honey sweetened yogurt
    • 1 tbsp. of honey in 0.6 cup (150g) of plain yogurt. The participants will be asked to consume 2 morning servings of the yogurt for a total of 2 tbsp. of the assigned honey per day.
  • Placebo Comparator: Sugar sweetened yogurt
    • Sugar will be added to 0.6 cup (150g) of plain yogurt in an isocaloric amount compared to the honey. The participants will be asked to consume 2 morning servings of the yogurt per day.

Clinical Trial Outcome Measures

Primary Measures

  • Concentration of CD4+ T Helper (TH)17 cytokines
    • Time Frame: 4 weeks
    • Cytokines included in the panel are: Il-1b, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17a, IL-21, IL-22, IL-23, IL-31, IL-33, IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, IL-17f.

Secondary Measures

  • Concentration of Secondary bile acids
    • Time Frame: 4 weeks
    • plasma microbial metabolites
  • Concentration of Short chain fatty acids
    • Time Frame: 4 weeks
    • Fecal microbial metabolites
  • Concentration of urolithins and other ellagitannin-derived metabolites
    • Time Frame: 4 weeks
    • microbial metabolites
  • Concentration of soluble NADPH oxidase (NOX2)
    • Time Frame: 4 weeks
    • plasma marker oxidative stress
  • Concentration of uric acid
    • Time Frame: 4 weeks
    • plasma marker oxidative stress
  • Concentration of total Nitrate/Nitrite and Nitric Oxide related metabolites (RSNO)
    • Time Frame: 4 weeks
    • dietary nitrate and NO metabolites
  • Concentration of untargeted metabolomics
    • Time Frame: 4 weeks
    • metabolism
  • Determination of microbial populations
    • Time Frame: 4 weeks
    • stool bacterial population

Participating in This Clinical Trial

Inclusion Criteria

  • Postmenopausal female: 45-65 years
  • Women: lack of menses for at least two years.
  • Subject is willing and able to comply with the study protocols.
  • Subject is willing to participate in all study procedures
  • BMI 25.0 – 30.0 kg/m2

Exclusion Criteria

  • BMI ≥ 31 kg/m2
  • Food allergies
  • Self-reported use of daily anticoagulation agents including aspirin, NSAIDs
  • Vegan, Vegetarians, food faddists or those consuming a non-traditional diet
  • Use of concentrated food supplements/powders and extracts
  • Fruit consumption > 2 cups/day
  • Vegetable consumption >3 cups/day
  • Self-reported restriction of physical activity due to a chronic health condition
  • Self-reported chronic/routine high intensity exercise
  • Self-reported diabetes
  • Blood pressure ≥ 140/90 mm Hg
  • Self-reported renal or liver disease
  • Self-reported heart disease, which includes cardiovascular events and stroke
  • Abnormal Metabolic or CBC panels (laboratory values outside the reference range) if determined to be clinically significant by the study physician.
  • Self-reported cancer within past 5 years
  • Self-reported malabsorption
  • Currently taking prescription drugs or supplements.
  • Supplement use other than a general formula of vitamins and minerals that meet the RDA
  • Not willing to stop any supplement use, including herbal, plant or botanical, fish oil, oil supplements a month prior to study enrollment.
  • Indications of substance or alcohol abuse within the last 3 years
  • Cannabis use
  • Screening LDL ≥ 190 mg/dl for those who have 0-1 major risk factors apart from LDL cholesterol (i.e. family history of premature coronary artery disease (male first degree relative < 55 years; CHD in female first degree relative < 65 years), cigarette smoker, HDL-C ≤ 40 mg/dL]. (using NCEP calculator http://cvdrisk.nhlbi.nih.gov/calculator.asp)
  • Screening LDL ≥ 160 mg/dl for those who have 2 major risk factors apart from LDL cholesterol [i.e. family history of premature coronary artery disease (male first degree relative < 55 years; CHD in female first degree relative < 65 years), cigarette smoker, HDL-C ≤ 40 mg/dL]. (using NCEP calculator http://cvdrisk.nhlbi.nih.gov/calculator.asp);
  • Screening LDL ≥ 130 mg/dl for those who have 2 major risk factors apart from LDL cholesterol [i.e. family history of premature coronary artery disease (male first degree relative < 55 years; CHD in female first degree relative < 65 years), cigarette smoker, HDL-C ≤ 40 mg/dL], and a Framingham 10-year Risk Score 10-20% (using NCEP calculator http://cvdrisk.nhlbi.nih.gov/calculator.asp).
  • Current enrollee in a clinical research study.

Gender Eligibility: Female

Minimum Age: 45 Years

Maximum Age: 65 Years

Are Healthy Volunteers Accepted: Accepts Healthy Volunteers

Investigator Details

  • Lead Sponsor
    • University of California, Davis
  • Provider of Information About this Clinical Study
    • Sponsor
  • Overall Official(s)
    • Carl L Keen, PhD, Principal Investigator, University of California, Davis; Department of Nutrition
  • Overall Contact(s)
    • Robert R Holt, PhD, 530-752-4950, rrholt@ucdavis.edu

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