Consumer Motivation for Disease Prevention 2 (Clear Labels)

Overview

The purpose of this study is to examine (1) how the causal structure of a disease influences people's disease prevention decisions; and (2) how the causal structure of a disease interacts with people's regret anticipation in determining their disease prevention decisions.

Study Type

  • Study Type: Interventional
  • Study Design
    • Allocation: Randomized
    • Intervention Model: Factorial Assignment
    • Primary Purpose: Other
    • Masking: Double (Participant, Investigator)
  • Study Primary Completion Date: April 2020

Detailed Description

People sometimes have to deliberate on whether or not to remove a risk factor that may potentially cause a disease in the future. When a modifiable risk factor (say, X) is the only factor that causes a disease, the decision to remove it may simply depend on the probabilistic relationship between X and an outcome, as well as the cost of removing X. However, little is known when other factors that are out of the decision-maker's control are also present. The main question being asked here is how does the presence of such non-modifiable factors change people's decision to remove X.

Specifically, the investigators consider two cases: a disease caused by a single modifiable risk factor (say X) and a disease caused by two risk factors — a modifiable factor (X) and a non-modifiable factor (Y). In both cases, the removal of X can result in a meaningful reduction in overall disease risk. It is hypothesized that even when the magnitude of overall risk reduction brought by the removal of X is the same in the two cases, people would have a lower motivation to remove X in the latter case.

The investigators also examine how the presence of a non-modifiable risk factor interacts with the respondents' regret anticipation to influence their decision to remove X. In the context of the current research, regret anticipation could take one of the following forms: (a) feel regretful if one decides not to remove X and later develops the disease (b) feel regretful if one decides to remove X but still develops the disease. The investigators expect (a) to moderate the effect of non-modifiable risk factor on motivation to remove X.

Interventions

  • Other: non-modifiable factor
    • the presence of an uncontrollable / unremovable risk factor for a disease
  • Other: induction of anticipated regret
    • higher level of elaboration on potential regret

Arms, Groups and Cohorts

  • No Intervention: Non-modifiable factor ABSENT; NO anticipated regret induced
    • The experiment comprises 10 rounds of decision tasks. Participant begins with 130 points (each worth HK$0.5) in each round. After the 10 rounds, the computer randomly selects 1 round and the points from this round is paid in cash. There is a chance for the participant to develop a disease. Without prevention, the chance of getting the disease is 60%. A cause, X, is identified for the disease. X is a modifiable cause, which means that it can be changed by taking some actions. The participant has to decide whether or not to remove X. Removal of X reduces disease chance; the reduced chance varies between 10% and 50% across the 10 rounds and the exact level is communicated at the beginning of each round. The removal of X costs 30 points. Whether s/he ends up developing the disease or not is determined by a computerized lottery based on these chances. If s/he develops the disease, s/he will lose 100 points.
  • Experimental: Non-modifiable factor ABSENT; anticipated regret induced
    • Same description as in the “uncontrollable factor absent, no anticipated regret induced” arm, except that the participants are induced to think to what extent they will feel regretful: a) if s/he decides not to remove X but ends up developing the disease and b) if s/he decides to remove X but still gets the disease.
  • Experimental: Non-modifiable factor PRESENT; NO anticipated regret induced
    • The experiment comprises 10 rounds of decision tasks. Participant begins with 130 points (each worth HK$0.5) in each round. After the 10 rounds, the computer randomly selects 1 round and the points from this round is paid in cash. There is a chance for the participant to develop a disease. Without prevention, the chance of getting the disease is 60%. Two causes, X and Y, are identified for the disease. X is a modifiable cause, which means that it can be changed by taking some actions. The participant has to decide whether or not to remove X. Removal of X reduces disease chance; the reduced chance varies between 10% and 50% across the 10 rounds and the exact level is communicated at the beginning of each round. The removal of X costs 30 points. Whether s/he ends up developing the disease or not is determined by a computerized lottery based on these chances. If s/he develops the disease, s/he will lose 100 points.
  • Experimental: Non-modifiable factor PRESENT; anticipated regret induced
    • Same as the “uncontrollable factor present, no anticipated regret induced” arm, except that the participants are induced to think to what extent they will feel regretful: a) if s/he decides not to remove X but ends up developing the disease and b) if s/he decides to remove X but still gets the disease.

Clinical Trial Outcome Measures

Primary Measures

  • Decision to remove X
    • Time Frame: Day 1: When responding to the questionnaire
    • The decision to remove X (yes vs. no)

Participating in This Clinical Trial

Inclusion Criteria

  • students currently studying at the Chinese University of Hong Kong

Exclusion Criteria

  • None

Gender Eligibility: All

Minimum Age: 18 Years

Maximum Age: N/A

Are Healthy Volunteers Accepted: Accepts Healthy Volunteers

Investigator Details

  • Lead Sponsor
    • Chinese University of Hong Kong
  • Collaborator
    • University of Toronto
  • Provider of Information About this Clinical Study
    • Principal Investigator: Yeung Wing Man, Associate Professor of Marketing – Chinese University of Hong Kong
  • Overall Official(s)
    • Wing Man Yeung, PhD, Principal Investigator, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong
  • Overall Contact(s)
    • Wing Man Yeung, PhD, (852) 39439297, cyeung@cuhk.edu.hk

References

Binder S, Nuscheler R. Risk-taking in vaccination, surgery, and gambling environments: Evidence from a framed laboratory experiment. Health Econ. 2017 Dec;26 Suppl 3:76-96. doi: 10.1002/hec.3620.

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