Chlorhexidine Cloths to Reduce Surgical Site Infection in Cesarean Deliveries

Overview

Pregnancy-associated infection represents a major cause of maternal morbidity and mortality. Cesarean delivery is the most common major surgical procedure and is associated with a rate of surgical site infection (SSI) that is approximately 5-10 times the rate for vaginal delivery. Efforts to reduce the risk of SSIs in this patient population include the use of preoperative antibiotic prophylaxis in addition to skin and vaginal antiseptic preparations.Nevertheless, the rate of SSI in women undergoing non-scheduled cesarean delivery is up to 18%, a significant number that contributes to prolonged hospital stays and increased health care costs. Every effort should be made to reduce this major cause of pregnancy-associated morbidity and mortality to aid in the care of patients and reduce the associated prolonged hospital stays, readmission rates and health care costs. Studies have shown that preoperative application of chlorhexidine cloths reduces the risk of SSI, however this is based on literature in the orthopedic and intensive care patients. The efficacy of this intervention has not been studied in obstetric patients undergoing cesarean delivery. Furthermore, obstetric patients undergoing non-scheduled cesarean delivery represent a target population as it is thought that infectious morbidity is higher in this patient population. Therefore, there is a need for this trial to determine if this intervention is effective in reducing the rate of postoperative SSIs.

Full Title of Study: “Preoperative Chlorhexidine Cloths to Reduce Surgical Site Infection in Non-Scheduled Cesarean Deliveries”

Study Type

  • Study Type: Interventional
  • Study Design
    • Allocation: Randomized
    • Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
    • Primary Purpose: Prevention
    • Masking: Double (Care Provider, Investigator)
  • Study Primary Completion Date: June 1, 2021

Detailed Description

This randomized clinical trial will be investigating the use of preoperative chlorhexidine cloths, a chemical skin antiseptic agent effective on gram positive and gram negative bacteria, as an intervention to reduce the rate of surgical site infections (SSIs). The intervention group will be women undergoing non-scheduled cesarean delivery randomized to receive preoperative abdominal application of 2% chlorhexidine cloths. The control group will be women undergoing non-scheduled cesarean delivery randomized to receive standard preoperative care. The impact on women's health is significant, as a reduction in SSIs in this prevalent patient population can reduce the number of prolonged hospital stays, outpatient follow-ups for infection, hospital readmissions and health care costs.

Interventions

  • Device: Chlorhexidine Cloth
    • 2% chlorhexidine gluconate cloth

Arms, Groups and Cohorts

  • Experimental: Chlorhexidine Cloth
    • The intervention group will be women undergoing non-scheduled cesarean delivery randomized to receive preoperative abdominal application of 2% chlorhexidine cloths.
  • No Intervention: Standard Preoperative Care
    • The no intervention group will be women undergoing non-scheduled cesarean delivery randomized to receive standard preoperative care.

Clinical Trial Outcome Measures

Primary Measures

  • Rate of surgical site infection
    • Time Frame: Up to 6 weeks after cesarean delivery

Secondary Measures

  • Hospital length of stay
    • Time Frame: Up to 6 weeks after cesarean delivery
  • Number of office visits
    • Time Frame: Up to 6 weeks after cesarean delivery
  • Number of hospital readmissions for infection-related complications
    • Time Frame: Up to 6 weeks after cesarean delivery
  • Rate of endometritis
    • Time Frame: Up to 6 weeks after cesarean delivery
  • Rate of positive wound culture from wound
    • Time Frame: Up to 6 weeks after cesarean delivery

Participating in This Clinical Trial

Inclusion Criteria

  • undergoing non-scheduled cesarean delivery > 23 weeks gestation Exclusion Criteria:

  • allergy to chlorhexidine, emergency cesarean delivery, evidence of infection at operative site

Gender Eligibility: Female

Minimum Age: 18 Years

Maximum Age: 50 Years

Are Healthy Volunteers Accepted: Accepts Healthy Volunteers

Investigator Details

  • Lead Sponsor
    • Northwell Health
  • Provider of Information About this Clinical Study
    • Principal Investigator: Moti Gulersen, Principal Investigator – Northwell Health

References

Carter EB, Temming LA, Fowler S, Eppes C, Gross G, Srinivas SK, Macones GA, Colditz GA, Tuuli MG. Evidence-Based Bundles and Cesarean Delivery Surgical Site Infections: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Obstet Gynecol. 2017 Oct;130(4):735-746. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000002249. Review.

Shree R, Park SY, Beigi RH, Dunn SL, Krans EE. Surgical Site Infection following Cesarean Delivery: Patient, Provider, and Procedure-Specific Risk Factors. Am J Perinatol. 2016 Jan;33(2):157-64. doi: 10.1055/s-0035-1563548. Epub 2015 Sep 7.

Moulton LJ, Munoz JL, Lachiewicz M, Liu X, Goje O. Surgical site infection after cesarean delivery: incidence and risk factors at a US academic institution. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2018 Jul;31(14):1873-1880. doi: 10.1080/14767058.2017.1330882. Epub 2017 Jun 8.

Tuuli MG, Liu J, Stout MJ, Martin S, Cahill AG, Odibo AO, Colditz GA, Macones GA. A Randomized Trial Comparing Skin Antiseptic Agents at Cesarean Delivery. N Engl J Med. 2016 Feb 18;374(7):647-55. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1511048. Epub 2016 Feb 4.

Springel EH, Wang XY, Sarfoh VM, Stetzer BP, Weight SA, Mercer BM. A randomized open-label controlled trial of chlorhexidine-alcohol vs povidone-iodine for cesarean antisepsis: the CAPICA trial. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2017 Oct;217(4):463.e1-463.e8. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2017.05.060. Epub 2017 Jun 7.

Boyce JM. Best products for skin antisepsis. Am J Infect Control. 2019 Jun;47S:A17-A22. doi: 10.1016/j.ajic.2019.03.012. Review.

Ahmed MR, Aref NK, Sayed Ahmed WA, Arain FR. Chlorhexidine vaginal wipes prior to elective cesarean section: does it reduce infectious morbidity? A randomized trial. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2017 Jun;30(12):1484-1487. doi: 10.1080/14767058.2016.1219996. Epub 2016 Sep 1.

Connery SA, Yankowitz J, Odibo L, Raitano O, Nikolic-Dorschel D, Louis JM. Effect of using silver nylon dressings to prevent superficial surgical site infection after cesarean delivery: a randomized clinical trial. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2019 Jul;221(1):57.e1-57.e7. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2019.02.053. Epub 2019 Mar 5.

Kapadia BH, Elmallah RK, Mont MA. A Randomized, Clinical Trial of Preadmission Chlorhexidine Skin Preparation for Lower Extremity Total Joint Arthroplasty. J Arthroplasty. 2016 Dec;31(12):2856-2861. doi: 10.1016/j.arth.2016.05.043. Epub 2016 May 31.

Zywiel MG, Daley JA, Delanois RE, Naziri Q, Johnson AJ, Mont MA. Advance pre-operative chlorhexidine reduces the incidence of surgical site infections in knee arthroplasty. Int Orthop. 2011 Jul;35(7):1001-6. doi: 10.1007/s00264-010-1078-5. Epub 2010 Jun 20.

Kapadia BH, Johnson AJ, Daley JA, Issa K, Mont MA. Pre-admission cutaneous chlorhexidine preparation reduces surgical site infections in total hip arthroplasty. J Arthroplasty. 2013 Mar;28(3):490-3. doi: 10.1016/j.arth.2012.07.015. Epub 2012 Oct 29.

Dixon JM, Carver RL. Daily chlorohexidine gluconate bathing with impregnated cloths results in statistically significant reduction in central line-associated bloodstream infections. Am J Infect Control. 2010 Dec;38(10):817-21. doi: 10.1016/j.ajic.2010.06.005.

Popovich KJ, Hota B, Hayes R, Weinstein RA, Hayden MK. Effectiveness of routine patient cleansing with chlorhexidine gluconate for infection prevention in the medical intensive care unit. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2009 Oct;30(10):959-63. doi: 10.1086/605925.

Kuyyakanond T, Quesnel LB. The mechanism of action of chlorhexidine. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 1992 Dec 15;100(1-3):211-5.

Darouiche RO, Wall MJ Jr, Itani KM, Otterson MF, Webb AL, Carrick MM, Miller HJ, Awad SS, Crosby CT, Mosier MC, Alsharif A, Berger DH. Chlorhexidine-Alcohol versus Povidone-Iodine for Surgical-Site Antisepsis. N Engl J Med. 2010 Jan 7;362(1):18-26. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa0810988.

DeBaun B. Evaluation of the antimicrobial properties of an alcohol-free 2% chlorhexidine gluconate solution. AORN J. 2008 May;87(5):925-33. doi: 10.1016/j.aorn.2008.02.001.

Edmiston CE Jr, Krepel CJ, Seabrook GR, Lewis BD, Brown KR, Towne JB. Preoperative shower revisited: can high topical antiseptic levels be achieved on the skin surface before surgical admission? J Am Coll Surg. 2008 Aug;207(2):233-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jamcollsurg.2007.12.054. Epub 2008 May 23.

Edmiston CE Jr, Seabrook GR, Johnson CP, Paulson DS, Beausoleil CM. Comparative of a new and innovative 2% chlorhexidine gluconate-impregnated cloth with 4% chlorhexidine gluconate as topical antiseptic for preparation of the skin prior to surgery. Am J Infect Control. 2007 Mar;35(2):89-96.

Clinical trials entries are delivered from the US National Institutes of Health and are not reviewed separately by this site. Please see the identifier information above for retrieving further details from the government database.

At TrialBulletin.com, we keep tabs on over 200,000 clinical trials in the US and abroad, using medical data supplied directly by the US National Institutes of Health. Please see the About and Contact page for details.