Responsiveness of Outcome Scales in Breast Cancer Related Lymphedema

Overview

The aim of this study is to investigate and compare responsiveness of current lymphedema assessment scales validated in Turkish.

Full Title of Study: “Investigation and Comparison of Lymphedema Outcome Measurements Validated in Turkish for Assessment of Breast Cancer Related Lymphedema”

Study Type

  • Study Type: Interventional
  • Study Design
    • Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment
    • Primary Purpose: Other
    • Masking: None (Open Label)
  • Study Primary Completion Date: May 30, 2020

Detailed Description

Lymphedema is defined as the excessive and persistent accumulation of fluid, extracellular proteins, and fat in tissue spaces, caused by inefficiency of the lymphatic drainage system. It is a chronic, progressive condition. Several researchers have investigated the influence on health-related quality of life in upper limb lymphedema after breast cancer treatment using patient reported outcome instruments. Responsiveness of only one of the lymphedema assessment scale, ''Lymphedema Quality of Life Inventory'', has been investigated. Responsiveness of lymphedema assessment scales validated in Turkish has not been examined in detail, thereby limiting their use in clinical trials. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate and compare responsiveness of current lymphedema assessment scales validated in Turkish. Patients with breast cancer related lymphedema with International Society of Lymphology-ISL lymphedema stage 2,3 will be included in the study and will receive complex decongestive therapy phase I including meticulous skin and nail care, manuel lymphatic drainage, compression bandages, and remedial exercises. All patients will receive manual lymphatic drainage for three times a week (Monday-Wednesday-Friday) during 4 weeks, 50 minutes a day (a total of 12 sessions) by a trained lymphatic massage therapist. Limb volume will be calculated based on truncated cone method from circumference measurements. Patients will complete Lymphedema Life Impact Scale (LLIS), Patient Benefit Index-Lymphedema(PBI), Lymphedema functioning, disability and health questionnaire(Lymph-ICF), European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Breast Cancer (EORTC-QLQ-30) and Short Form 36 (SF-36) before and after treatment. Changes in limb volumes will be compared in changes in scales after treatment. Responsiveness of the subscales will be will be determined by calculating the effect size (change in all patients), standardized mean response (effect size in a group with improvement), and Guyatt's Responsiveness Index.

Interventions

  • Other: complex decongestive therapy
    • Complex decongestive therapy-phase 1 program consist of meticulous skin and nail care, manuel lymphatic drainage, compression bandages, and remedial exercises. All patients will receive manual lymphatic drainage for three times a week (Monday-Wednesday-Friday) during 4 weeks, 50 minutes a day (a total of 12 sessions) by a trained lymphatic massage therapist.

Arms, Groups and Cohorts

  • Experimental: Patients with post-mastectomy lymphedema
    • Patients with breast cancer related lymphedema who will undergo complex decongestive therapy

Clinical Trial Outcome Measures

Primary Measures

  • Limb volume measurement
    • Time Frame: before treatment (T0)
    • Limb volume will be calculated based on truncated cone method from circumference measurements
  • Limb volume measurement
    • Time Frame: after treatment (T1) (through completion of four weeks of complex decongestive therapy phase 1)
    • Limb volume will be calculated based on truncated cone method from circumference measurements

Secondary Measures

  • Lymphedema Quality of Life Questionnaire-Arm (LYMQOL)
    • Time Frame: before treatment (T0)
    • The LYMQOL-Arm has been developed to assess the impact of lymphedema of the arms on the QoL of the patients. It consists of four domains with 28 items. These domains are symptoms, appearance, function, and mood. The answers were evaluated on a four-point Likert scale (1= not at all 2= a little, 3= quite a bit, 4= a lot). Each item received a score between 1 and 4, with higher scores indicating a worse QoL.
  • Lymphedema Quality of Life Questionnaire-Arm
    • Time Frame: after treatment (T1) (through completion of four weeks of complex decongestive therapy phase 1)
    • The LYMQOL-Arm has been developed to assess the impact of lymphedema of the arms on the QoL of the patients. It consists of four domains with 28 items. These domains are symptoms, appearance, function, and mood. The answers were evaluated on a four-point Likert scale (1= not at all 2= a little, 3= quite a bit, 4= a lot). Each item received a score between 1 and 4, with higher scores indicating a worse QoL.
  • Lymphedema Life Impact Scale (LLIS)
    • Time Frame: before treatment (T0)
    • The LLIS is an 18-item measure of physical, psychosocial, and functional impairments caused by lymphedema.
  • Lymphedema Life Impact Scale (LLIS)
    • Time Frame: after treatment (T1) (through completion of four weeks of complex decongestive therapy phase 1)
    • The LLIS is an 18-item measure of physical, psychosocial, and functional impairments caused by lymphedema.
  • Patient Benefit Index-Lymphedema(PBI)
    • Time Frame: before treatment (T0)
    • The Patient Benefit Index (PBI) methodology allows for a more direct measurement of patient-relevant treatment.benefit. In the first part the Patient Needs Questionnaire (PNQ)patients rate the importance of a list of patient relevant treatment goals on a five-step scale from “not at all” to “very”. In the second part the Patient Benefit Questionnaire (PBQ) patients rate to what extent the treatment goals have been achieved on the same five-step scale. Alternatively, they can choose “does not apply to me” for each treatment goal in both questionnaires. Thus, the patient directly evaluates treatment benefit instead of rating her/his current HRQoL before and after treatment. A PBI weighted global score ranging from 0 (no benefit) to 4 (maximum benefit) is computed for each patient. The weighting algorithm8 ensures that the achievement of important treatment goals will have higher impact on the global score than the achievement of less important goals.
  • Patient Benefit Index-Lymphedema(PBI)
    • Time Frame: after treatment (T1) (through completion of four weeks of complex decongestive therapy phase 1)
    • The Patient Benefit Index (PBI) methodology allows for a more direct measurement of patient-relevant treatment.benefit. In the first part the Patient Needs Questionnaire (PNQ) patients rate the importance of a list of patient relevant treatment goals on a five-step scale from “not at all” to “very”. In the second part the Patient Benefit Questionnaire (PBQ) patients rate to what extent the treatment goals have been achieved on the same five-step scale. Alternatively, they can choose “does not apply to me” for each treatment goal in both questionnaires. Thus, the patient directly evaluates treatment benefit instead of rating her/his current HRQoL before and after treatment. A PBI weighted global score ranging from 0 (no benefit) to 4 (maximum benefit) is computed for each patient. The weighting algorithm8 ensures that the achievement of important treatment goals will have higher impact on the global score than the achievement of less important goals.
  • Lymphoedema functioning, disability and health questionnaire(Lymph-ICF)
    • Time Frame: before treatment (T0)
    • The Lymph-ICF questionnaire is composed of 29 questions. Each question is answered using a visual analog scale (VAS) ranging from 0 to 100 mm. The anchors for the impairments in function (e.g. “Does your arm hurt?”) are “not at all” and “very much,” and those for the activity limitations and participation restrictions (e.g. “Are you able to carry heavy weights?”) are “very well” and “not at all.” The Lymph-ICF has 5 domains: physical function, mental function, household activities, mobility activities, and life and social activities. The total score of the Lymph-ICF is equal to the sum of the scores of the questions divided by the total number of answered questions.
  • Lymphoedema functioning, disability and health questionnaire(Lymph-ICF)
    • Time Frame: after treatment (T1) (through completion of four weeks of complex decongestive therapy phase 1)
    • The Lymph-ICF questionnaire is composed of 29 questions. Each question is answered using a visual analog scale (VAS) ranging from 0 to 100 mm. The anchors for the impairments in function (e.g. “Does your arm hurt?”) are “not at all” and “very much,” and those for the activity limitations and participation restrictions (e.g. “Are you able to carry heavy weights?”) are “very well” and “not at all.” The Lymph-ICF has 5 domains: physical function, mental function, household activities, mobility activities, and life and social activities. The total score of the Lymph-ICF is equal to the sum of the scores of the questions divided by the total number of answered questions.
  • European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QoL Breast Cancer (EORTC-QLQ-30)
    • Time Frame: before treatment (T0)
    • The EORTC QLQ-C30 questionnaire is a survey conducted to evaluate the quality of life in patients with breast cancer. It consists of 30 questions which assess symptoms that occurred in the previous two weeks. Responses are given on a Likert scale: 1 – not at all, 2 – a little, 3 – quite a bit, 4 – very much. The global health scale consists of two questions asking patients to classify their general health and quality of life in the previous week, by rating it from 1 to 7, in which 1 means poor and 7, excellent. The questionnaires are divided into three scales: global health scale (GHS), functional scale (FS) and symptom scale (SS).
  • European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QoL Breast Cancer (EORTC-QLQ-30)
    • Time Frame: after treatment (T1) (through completion of four weeks of complex decongestive therapy phase 1)
    • The EORTC QLQ-C30 questionnaire is a survey conducted to evaluate the quality of life in patients with breast cancer. It consists of 30 questions which assess symptoms that occurred in the previous two weeks. Responses are given on a Likert scale: 1 – not at all, 2 – a little, 3 – quite a bit, 4 – very much. The global health scale consists of two questions asking patients to classify their general health and quality of life in the previous week, by rating it from 1 to 7, in which 1 means poor and 7, excellent. The questionnaires are divided into three scales: global health scale (GHS), functional scale (FS) and symptom scale (SS).
  • Short Form 36 (SF-36)
    • Time Frame: before treatment (T0)
    • The Short Form 36 (SF-36) Health Survey measures overall health. It has eight sections: Physical functioning (10), role limitations due to physical health (4), role limitations due to emotional problems (3), energy/fatigue (4), emotional well-being (5), social functioning (2), pain (2), and general health (5). Each scale is transformed into a 0-100 scale on the assumption that each scale carries equal weight. The lower the score, the more disability.
  • Short Form 36 (SF-36)
    • Time Frame: after treatment (T1) (through completion of four weeks of complex decongestive therapy phase 1)
    • The Short Form 36 (SF-36) Health Survey measures overall health. It has eight sections: Physical functioning (10), role limitations due to physical health (4), role limitations due to emotional problems (3), energy/fatigue (4), emotional well-being (5), social functioning (2), pain (2), and general health (5). Each scale is transformed into a 0-100 scale on the assumption that each scale carries equal weight. The lower the score, the more disability.

Participating in This Clinical Trial

Inclusion Criteria

-Patients with unilateral postmastectomy lymphedema with a International Society of Lymphology-ISL) stage 2 and 3

Exclusion Criteria

  • Bilateral lymphedema
  • The patients who had known systemic edematogenic conditions (e.g., cardiac/hepatic/renal failure, terminal cancer, on chemotherapy), and/or with cancer recurrence
  • Patients with contraindications for application of complex decongestive therapy (active cutaneous infection, deep vein thrombosis, cardiac edema, and peripheral artery disease)

Gender Eligibility: Female

Minimum Age: 18 Years

Maximum Age: 80 Years

Are Healthy Volunteers Accepted: No

Investigator Details

  • Lead Sponsor
    • Marmara University
  • Provider of Information About this Clinical Study
    • Sponsor
  • Overall Official(s)
    • Gulseren Akyuz, Prof, Study Chair, Marmara University
  • Overall Contact(s)
    • Esra Nur Nur Türkmen, PT, +905545239830, e.nur5313@hotmail.com

Citations Reporting on Results

Menz HB, Auhl M, Tan JM, Levinger P, Roddy E, Munteanu SE. Comparative Responsiveness of Outcome Measures for the Assessment of Pain and Function in First Metatarsophalangeal Joint Osteoarthritis. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2019 Mar 25. doi: 10.1002/acr.23883. [Epub ahead of print]

Borman P, Yaman A, Denizli M, Karahan S, Özdemir O. The reliability and validity of Lymphedema Quality of Life Questionnaire-Arm in Turkish patients with upper limb lymphedema related with breast cancer. Turk J Phys Med Rehabil. 2018 Jul 9;64(3):205-212. doi: 10.5606/tftrd.2018.2843. eCollection 2018 Sep.

Duygu E, Bakar Y, Keser I. An Important Tool in Lymphedema Management: Validation of Turkish Version of the Patient Benefit Index-Lymphedema. Lymphat Res Biol. 2019 May 30. doi: 10.1089/lrb.2018.0036. [Epub ahead of print]

Bakar Y, Tuğral A. Translation, reliability, and validation of the Turkish version of the Lymphedema Quality-of-Life tool in Turkish-speaking patients with lower limb Lymphedema. J Vasc Nurs. 2019 Mar;37(1):11-17. doi: 10.1016/j.jvn.2018.11.005. Epub 2019 Jan 31.

Bakar Y, Tuğral A, Özdemir Ö, Duygu E, Üyetürk Ü. Translation and Validation of the Turkish Version of Lymphedema Quality of Life Tool (LYMQOL) in Patients with Breast Cancer Related Lymphedema. Eur J Breast Health. 2017 Jul 1;13(3):123-128. doi: 10.5152/ejbh.2017.3522. eCollection 2017 Jul.

Kostanoglu A, Hosbay Z, Tarakci E. Lymphoedema functioning, disability and health questionnaire Turkish version: translation, cross-cultural adaptation and validation. J Phys Ther Sci. 2016 Jun;28(6):1728-32. doi: 10.1589/jpts.28.1728. Epub 2016 Jun 28.

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