The Effect of Motivational Interview Based on Transtheoretical Model Promoting Healthy Elderly to Exercise Behavior

Overview

The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of motivational interview based on transtheoretical model to provide elderly with the exercise behavior.

In this randomized controlled trial, research patterns with pre-test post-test experimental design have been used on control group and the intervention group. The population of our study consists of 1708 elderly people aged 65-74. This randomized controlled study took place in a Family Health Center in the central province of Yozgat between the years 2018 and 2019.

Study Type

  • Study Type: Interventional
  • Study Design
    • Allocation: Randomized
    • Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
    • Primary Purpose: Prevention
    • Masking: Single (Outcomes Assessor)
  • Study Primary Completion Date: November 20, 2019

Detailed Description

The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of motivational interview based on transtheoretical model to provide elderly with the exercise behavior.

In this randomized controlled trial, research patterns with pre-test post-test experimental design have been used on control group and the intervention group. The population of our study consists of 1708 elderly people aged 65-74. This randomized controlled study took place in a Family Health Center in the central province of Yozgat between the years 2018 and 2019.

The sample of the study consists of a total of 105 elderly intervention group (n=53) and control group (n=52) determined according to eligibility criterion and power analysis. The study population was randomly assigned to experimental group and control group after blocking some features. These characteristics are age (65-69, 70-74), gender (male-female) and exercise stages of change determined according to the exercise stage of change level short question form (pre-contemplation and contemplation).

The data were gathered through face-to-face interview method at Family Health Center Nr. 5 by the researcher.

The data of the intervention group is gathered as follows. The very first week (initial follow-up) pre-test was applied. (Personal information form, KATZ, PASE, TTM scales, height-weight and waist circumference measurement).

The intervention group was given a pedometer and told to carry it for 1 week (the 1st week). The average number of weekly steps was calculated.

Face-to-face motivational interviews were conducted in the 2nd week (the 2nd follow-up), the 4th week (the 3rd follow-up), the 6th week (the 4th follow-up) the 8th week (the 5th follow-up).

The intervention group was given a pedometer and told to carry it for 1 week (the 9th week). The average number of weekly steps was calculated.

The 12th week (the 6th follow-up) mid test was applied. (Personal information form, KATZ, PASE, TTM scales, weight and waist circumference measurement).

The intervention group was given a pedometer and told to carry it for 1 week (the 13th week). The average number of weekly steps was calculated.

Motivational interview was done via phone call in the 16th (the 7th follow-up) and the 20th weeks (the 8th follow-up).

Post test has been applied at the 24th week (ninth follow-up). (Personal information form, KATZ, PASE, TTM scales, weight and waist circumference measurement).

The intervention group will be told to carry the pedometer for 1 week (the 25th week). The average number of weekly stephps was calculated.

The data of the control group is gathered as follows. The very first week (initial follow-up) pre-test was applied. (Personal information form, KATZ, PASE, TTM scales, height-weight and waist circumference measurement).

The control group was then given a pedometer and told to carry it for 1 week (the 2nd week). The average number of weekly steps was calculated.

The 24th week (the 2nd follow-up) post test was applied. (Personal information form, KATZ, PASE, TTM scales, weight and waist circumference measurement).

The control group has been told to carry the pedometer for 1 week (the 25th week). The average number of weekly steps was calculated.

Interventions

  • Behavioral: Intervention motivational interview group
    • Motivational interviewing (MI) a client-centered, goal-oriented method for enhancing intrinsic motivation to change by exploring and resolving ambivalence. Motivational interviewing is underpinned by a series of principles that emphasise a collaborative therapeutic relationship in which the autonomy of the patient is respected and the patient’s intrinsic resources for change are elicited by the therapist.

Arms, Groups and Cohorts

  • Experimental: Intervention motivational interview group
    • Motivational interviewing (MI) a client-centered, goal-oriented method for enhancing intrinsic motivation to change by exploring and resolving ambivalence. Motivational interviewing is underpinned by a series of principles that emphasise a collaborative therapeutic relationship in which the autonomy of the patient is respected and the patient’s intrinsic resources for change are elicited by the therapist.
  • No Intervention: Control
    • The control group will be pre-tested and post-tested and the average number of steps will be calculated with a pedometer.

Clinical Trial Outcome Measures

Primary Measures

  • Measurement of stages of change
    • Time Frame: Twenty-five weeks
    • The transtheoretical model construes change as a process involving progress through a series of five stages. Precontemplation is the stage in which people are not intending to take action in the foreseeable future, usually measured as the next 6 months. Contemplation is the stage in which people are intending to change in the next 6 months. Preparation is the stage in which people are intending to take action in the immediate future, usually measured as the next month. Action is the stage in which people have made specific overt modifications in their life styles within the past 6 months. Maintenance is the stage in which people are working to prevent relapse but they do not apply change processes as frequently as do people in action. It is expected that there will be progress in the levels of stages of change exercise behaviors of the elderly who have been conducted motivational interviews based on transtheoretical model.

Secondary Measures

  • Assessment of physical activity level-Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly
    • Time Frame: Twenty-five weeks
    • Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly was developed for the purpose of evaluating the components of physical activities involving leisure time, work-related activities, and the household. Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly is a self-reported questionnaire that consists of 12 questions regarding the frequency and duration of leisure time activity, household activity, and work-related activity during the previous 7-day period. The questions are scored differently. The total Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly score is computed by multiplying either the time spent in each activity (hours per week) or participation (i.e. yes or no) in an activity by empirically derived item weights and then summing the overall activities. The overall Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly score ranges from 0 to 400 or more and high scores show better physical activity levels With motivational interviews, an increase is expected in Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly scores.
  • Assessment of physical activity level-Pedometer monitoring
    • Time Frame: Twenty-five weeks
    • Physical activity levels has been determined through Pedometer monitoring. With motivational interviews, an increase is expected the average number of weekly steps taken with a pedometer.

Participating in This Clinical Trial

Inclusion Criteria

  • No muscle joint problems to prevent physical activity
  • No neuropsychiatric disorder
  • No cognitive problems that interfere with communication
  • The ones at the pre-thinking or thinking phase according to exercise change stage
  • Primary school graduate or at least literate
  • Individuals aged 65-74 who volunteered to participate in the study

Exclusion Criteria

  • Insulin-dependent with Type 2 DM
  • HT cannot be controlled by medication
  • MMT (those below 24 points) and Geriatric Depression Scale (those above 5 points) were excluded from the cut-off value
  • Heart failure,
  • COPD,
  • Asthma and
  • Individuals diagnosed with cancer

Termination Criteria:

  • Request of the elderly for leaving the research
  • A case in which the elderly is needed to be hospitalized
  • Change in mental status such as dementia.

Gender Eligibility: All

Minimum Age: 65 Years

Maximum Age: 74 Years

Are Healthy Volunteers Accepted: Accepts Healthy Volunteers

Investigator Details

  • Lead Sponsor
    • Gazi University
  • Provider of Information About this Clinical Study
    • Principal Investigator: Ebru SÖNMEZ, Principal Investigator – Gazi University
  • Overall Official(s)
    • Yeter KİTİŞ, Assoc. Prof., Study Director, Gazi University

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