Effects of High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) vs. Inspiratory Resistance Training on the Recovery After a Maximal Apnea.

Overview

The aim of this randomized cross-over controlled study was to assess the effects of an 4-week exercise program on the recovery capacity after a voluntary maximal apnea. Participants will be randomly allocated to receive either a high intensity interval training (HIIT), or an inspiratory muscle training (IMT) using an inspiratory resistance device.

Full Title of Study: “Hook Breathing Facilitates Oxygen Saturation Recovery After Deep Dives in Breath-hold Divers With Proneness to Lung Squeeze: A Randomized Crossover Trial”

Study Type

  • Study Type: Interventional
  • Study Design
    • Allocation: Randomized
    • Intervention Model: Crossover Assignment
    • Primary Purpose: Treatment
    • Masking: Single (Outcomes Assessor)
  • Study Primary Completion Date: September 16, 2019

Detailed Description

It is a multi-center study. 3 different Spanish Freedivers Centres are included in the study (Madrid, Zaragoza, and Barcelona).

For each participant, exercise program started with one or the other program. Hence, both interventions were applied once with the participant randomly allocated to receive the same intervention. The trial included four study visits. Each exercise training program will be applied sessions per week during 4 weeks. Participants received baseline assessments at the beginning of nay intervention, and post-intervention assessments at the end of the fourth week. The wash-out period will be two weeks. After these two weeks participants switched intervention.

Interventions

  • Other: High intensity interval training
    • Participants will perform 3 HIIT sessions per week, involving 10 min of intense exercise within a time commitment of 30 min per session, including warm-up, recovery between intervals and cool down.
  • Other: Inspiratory muscle training
    • Participants will perform 3 inspiratory resistance training sessions per week, involving 30 min per session, including warm-up, recovery between intervals

Arms, Groups and Cohorts

  • Active Comparator: High intensity interval training
    • It will apply a HIIT program for 4 weeks, with 3 sessions per week of 30 min per session, including warm-up, recovery between intervals and return to calm.
  • Active Comparator: Inspiratory muscle training
    • It will apply an inspiratory muscle training for 4 weeks, with 3 sessions per week of 30 min per session, including warm-up, recovery between intervals and return to calm.

Clinical Trial Outcome Measures

Primary Measures

  • Oxygen Saturation recovery
    • Time Frame: Before and after training intervention (after 4 weeks)
    • Oxygen Saturation recovery will be record by the experimenters every 5 seconds by a handheld pulse-oximeter during the 1 min recovery time after a maximal dynamic apnea. The outcome represents the time it takes to get a 95% of saturation during these 1 minute.

Secondary Measures

  • Lung function (forced spirometry)
    • Time Frame: Before and after training intervention (after 4 weeks)
    • The Spirometry will be perform according to American Thoracic Society criteria and was measured in litres. The maneuver will be perform 3 times and recording the best one.
  • Maximum Respiratory Pressures
    • Time Frame: Before and after training intervention (after 4 weeks)
    • The maximum respiratory pressures (MIP and MEP) will be measure with a device. This device applies an inspiratory/expiratory load which provides a resistance. The maneuver will be perform in a sitting position. Measuring a minimum of 3 times will be perform, recording the highest value.
  • Lactic acid recovery
    • Time Frame: Before and after training intervention (after 4 weeks)
    • The level of lactic acid in the blood will be measure by a device that used a blood lactic acid measurement that you’ve gotten by the finger-stick method. It will be record by the experimenters 3 times: immediately after the maximal dynamic apnea, after 3 min and after 10 min of the maximal dynamic apnea.
  • Heart Rate recovery
    • Time Frame: Before and after training intervention (after 4 weeks)
    • Heart Rate will be record by the experimenters every 5 seconds by a handheld pulse-oximeter during the 1 min recovery time after a maximal dynamic apnea. The outcome represents how long does it take before the participant periodic Heart Rate is stabilized during these 1 minute.

Participating in This Clinical Trial

Inclusion Criteria

  • Absence of pain or illness
  • No changes in cognitive ability
  • Over 18 years old.
  • Member of the Spanish Federation of Underwater Activities.
  • Positive medical examination that allows the diver to practice voluntary apnea.

Exclusion Criteria

  • People with systemic diseases, tumors, infections, pacemakers, history of epilepsy, hydrophobia, pregnancy women, pharmacological treatment.
  • To be participating in other physical activities during the experimental research

Gender Eligibility: All

Minimum Age: 18 Years

Maximum Age: 60 Years

Are Healthy Volunteers Accepted: Accepts Healthy Volunteers

Investigator Details

  • Lead Sponsor
    • Centro Universitario La Salle
  • Provider of Information About this Clinical Study
    • Principal Investigator: Fran de Asís Fernández, Principal Investigator – Centro Universitario La Salle
  • Overall Contact(s)
    • Francisco de Asís Fernández, PhD, (+34) 91 7401 980, frandeasis@lasallecampus.es

References

Andersson JP, Linér MH, Rünow E, Schagatay EK. Diving response and arterial oxygen saturation during apnea and exercise in breath-hold divers. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2002 Sep;93(3):882-6.

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