The Effect of Ramipril in Suppressing ST2 Expression in Rheumatic Mitral Stenosis Patients


Objective propose: to investigate the effect of Ramipril in suppressing ST2 (suppression of tumorigenicity 2) in the cardiac mitral valve in patients with Rheumatic Heart Disease. We hypothesized that we hypothesized that ramipril will improve rheumatic mitral valve fibrosis through the downregulation of ST2.

Full Title of Study: “Randomised Controlled Trial Into the Role of Ramipril in Fibrosis Reduction in Rheumatic Heart Disease: The RamiRHeD Trial Protocol”

Study Type

  • Study Type: Interventional
  • Study Design
    • Allocation: Randomized
    • Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
    • Primary Purpose: Treatment
    • Masking: Double (Participant, Investigator)
  • Study Primary Completion Date: August 8, 2024

Detailed Description

The efficacy of secondary prevention is limited in the prevention of RHD progression. For this reason, new strategies and therapies are needed to prevent the progression of RHD. Neutralizing inflammatory cytokines or antagonizing their receptor function has been considered as a useful therapeutic strategy to treat autoimmune diseases. In this respect, new therapies targeting ST 2 and their receptors as studied in some autoimmune diseases may promise a new approach for patients with RHD. Angiotensin II induces the upregulation of Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) and latter the binding of IL-33 to sST2 and not to the natural ligand (ST2L). The binding of IL-33 to sST2 will cause fibrogenesis even more. Thus, ACEI is hypothesized to attenuate this vicious cycle through the inhibition of Angiotensin II and consequently increase Bradykinin that furtherly inhibits fibrosis through the negative regulation of angiotensin II activity in Mitogen Activator Protein Kinase (MAPK) pathways through the suppression of the Ca2+ response and the Na+ transportACE inhibitor were agents with anti-fibrosis effects. The investigators keen to investigate the effect of Ramipril in suppressing ST2 expression as biomarkers of fibrosis in cardiac mitral valve in patients with Rheumatic Heart Disease in the National Cardiac Center Harapan Kita hospital Jakarta Indonesia. This study was designed as a randomized clinical trial. Patients with mitral stenosis valvular dysfunction due to rheumatic process planned for cardiac valve replacement surgery were given Ramipril or placebo for a minimum of 12 weeks (3 months). ST2 expression will be analyzed as the fibrosis biomarker in the mitral valve. This study will be conducted in the Department of Cardiology and Vascular Medicine, University Indonesia, National Cardiac Center Harapan Kita Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia from June 2019


  • Drug: Placebos
    • the control group will be given placebo inside a capsule, so study participant won’t be able to know the drug and doses inside the capsule (for masking). Placebo will be given until 5 days prior to Mitral valve replacement surgery.
  • Drug: Ramipril 5Mg Oral Capsule
    • the treatment group will be given each Ramipril 2,5 mg inside a capsule as an initial dose, for 2 weeks. If there is no serious adverse effect in the observation period of 2 weeks, Ramipril 5 mg inside a capsule will be given for the next weeks until 5 days before the mitral valve surgery date. Study participant won’t be able to know the drug and doses inside the capsule (for masking)

Arms, Groups and Cohorts

  • Placebo Comparator: control
    • control patients will be given a placebo
  • Experimental: treatment
    • Ramipril 5 mg treatment group

Clinical Trial Outcome Measures

Primary Measures

  • ST2 expression in mitral valve tissue and papillary muscle
    • Time Frame: a year
    • expression of ST2 in mitral valve tissue, using immunohistochemistry method

Secondary Measures

  • ST2 Plasma concentration
    • Time Frame: a year
    • plasma level of ST2 measured by ELISA
  • NT-proBNP concentration (pg/ml)
    • Time Frame: a year
    • concentration of NT-proBNP, plasma markers for cardiac dysfunction.
  • NYHA class
    • Time Frame: a year
    • related symptoms will be graded in class I to IV according to NYHA.
  • cardiovascular mortality
    • Time Frame: 1 year
    • Study participants will be followed up until 1 year after the surgery for any mortality that is caused by progression of the cardiac disease
  • All-cause mortality
    • Time Frame: 1 year
    • Study participants will be followed up until 1 year after the surgery for mortality of any cause.
  • End diastolic dimension
    • Time Frame: 1 year
    • The diameter across a ventricle at the end of diastole, if not else specified then usually referring to the transverse (left-to-right) internal (luminal) distance, excluding thickness of walls, although it can also be measured as the external distance.
  • End systolic dimension
    • Time Frame: 1 year
    • The diameter across a ventricle at the end of systole, if not else specified then usually referring to the transverse (left-to-right) internal (luminal) distance, excluding thickness of walls, although it can also be measured as the external distance.
  • Mitral valve area
    • Time Frame: 1 year
    • mitral valve area is the area of mitral valve, measured by the Gorlin formula MVA (cm2) = (CO ÷ DFP) ÷ (38.0 x MPG) where MVA is the mitral valve area, CO is cardiac output, DFP is the diastolic flow period, 38.0 is the constant and MPG is pressure gradient.
  • Mitral valve gradient
    • Time Frame: 1 year
    • mitralvalve graient is a echocardiographic parameters of the pressure gradient in the mitral valve
  • Tricuspid maximal velocity (Vmax)
    • Time Frame: 1 year
    • Tricuspid maximal velocity (Vmax) is the echocardiographic parameters of the maximal velocity in tricuspid valve annulus
  • Tricuspid regurgitation severity
    • Time Frame: 1 year
    • TRicuspid regurgitation severity is classified ad mild, moderate, and severe, according to European Association of Echocardiography measurement year 2010 for Tricuspid Valve regusrgitation severity.
  • Ejection fraction
    • Time Frame: 1 year
    • echocardiographic parameter to asses ventricular function
  • TAPSE (tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion)
    • Time Frame: 1 year
    • echocardiography parameter to asses right ventricular function

Participating in This Clinical Trial

Inclusion Criteria

  • Patients with mitral valve stenosis or a combination – aged more than 18 years – undergo cardiac valve replacement operation with or without a tricuspid valve repair, – patients with systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥ 100 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≥ 60 mmHg – passed in medication phase without side effect minimum 4 weeks until operation schedule Exclusion Criteria:

1. Patients with congenital heart disease 2. patients with non-mitral valve surgery 3. patients with coronary artery bypass surgery 4. patients who refuse to join this study. 5. adults aged over 65 years or older 6. pregnant women 7. patients with autoimmune disease. 8. Patients with persistent hypotension (systolic blood pressure (BP) < 100 mm Hg) 9. severe aortic stenosis (aortic valve orifice < 0.75 cm2 ) 10. chronic renal dysfunction with serum creatinine > 2.5 mg/ dL, 11. known ACEI intolerance.

Gender Eligibility: All

Minimum Age: 18 Years

Maximum Age: 65 Years

Are Healthy Volunteers Accepted: No

Investigator Details

  • Lead Sponsor
    • Indonesia University
  • Provider of Information About this Clinical Study
    • Principal Investigator: Ade Meidian Ambari, MD, cardiologist, head of cardiovascular prevention and rehabilitation – Indonesia University
  • Overall Official(s)
    • Ade Meidian Ambari, MD,FIHA, Principal Investigator, Universitas Indonesia, RSPJN harapan kita
  • Overall Contact(s)
    • Ade Meidian Ambari, MD, FIHA, 021-5684085,


Wei Q, Liu H, Liu M, Yang C, Yang J, Liu Z, Yang P. Ramipril attenuates left ventricular remodeling by regulating the expression of activin A-follistatin in a rat model of heart failure. Sci Rep. 2016 Sep 19;6:33677. doi: 10.1038/srep33677.

Shi Q, Abusarah J, Baroudi G, Fernandes JC, Fahmi H, Benderdour M. Ramipril attenuates lipid peroxidation and cardiac fibrosis in an experimental model of rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Res Ther. 2012 Oct 18;14(5):R223. doi: 10.1186/ar4062.

Ciccone MM, Cortese F, Gesualdo M, Riccardi R, Di Nunzio D, Moncelli M, Iacoviello M, Scicchitano P. A novel cardiac bio-marker: ST2: a review. Molecules. 2013 Dec 11;18(12):15314-28. doi: 10.3390/molecules181215314. Review.

Ambari AM, Setianto B, Santoso A, Radi B, Dwiputra B, Susilowati E, Tulrahmi F, Doevendans PA, Cramer MJ. Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitors (ACEIs) Decrease the Progression of Cardiac Fibrosis in Rheumatic Heart Disease Through the Inhibition of IL-33/sST2. Front Cardiovasc Med. 2020 Jul 28;7:115. doi: 10.3389/fcvm.2020.00115. eCollection 2020. Review.

Clinical trials entries are delivered from the US National Institutes of Health and are not reviewed separately by this site. Please see the identifier information above for retrieving further details from the government database.

At, we keep tabs on over 200,000 clinical trials in the US and abroad, using medical data supplied directly by the US National Institutes of Health. Please see the About and Contact page for details.