Intracorporeal Vs Extracorporeal Anastomosis in Laparoscopic Right Hemicolectomy

Overview

Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate short-term outcomes of performing intracorporeal versus extracorporeal anastomosis in laparoscopic right hemicolectomy for right colon neoplasm. Background. Despite advances in laparoscopic approach in colorectal surgery and the clear benefit of this approach over open surgery, the technical difficulty in performing intracorporeal anastomosis causes certain groups continue performing it extracorporeally in right colon surgery.

Methods. This study was a prospective multicenter randomized trial with two parallel groups being done intracorporeal anastomosis (IA) or extracorporeal anastomosis (EA) in laparoscopic right hemicolectomy for right colon neoplasm, carried out between January 2016 and December 2018.

Full Title of Study: “Intracorporeal Vs Extracorporeal Anastomosis in Patients Undergoing Laparoscopic Right Hemicolectomy: a Multicenter Randomized Clinical Trial (The IVEA-study)”

Study Type

  • Study Type: Interventional
  • Study Design
    • Allocation: Randomized
    • Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
    • Primary Purpose: Treatment
    • Masking: None (Open Label)
  • Study Primary Completion Date: December 31, 2018

Detailed Description

Right hemicolectomy using a minimally invasive technique allows for an earlier recovery, with less postoperative pain and less hospital stay. After right hemicolectomy, the ileocolic anastomosis is not performed "naturally" as is habitually done in low anterior resections or sigmoidectomies. There is, therefore, no standardization in the reconstruction technique, with two possibilities: intracorporeal and extracorporeal anastomosis.

The intracorporeal anastomosis allows proper visualization of it, ensuring adequate conformation (absence of rotation or traction), in addition allowing the closure of the mesos and avoiding the possible appearance of internal hernia, also allowing to choose the location and length of the incision necessary for the extraction of the piece. On the other hand, it is a difficult technique that requires high training in advanced laparoscopy.

The extracorporeal anastomosis is performed by extracting both ends (terminal ileum and transverse colon) through the incision through which the piece is obtained, and the anastomosis is performed. It does not require, therefore, an important training in intracorporeal sutures. On the contrary, it forces to make the abdominal incision in the area that allows the extraction of said ends. In obese patients it can be difficult since the mesos are short and do not allow their extraction easilywith ,so sometimes, it forces excessive traction. In addition, intestinal rotations during the anastomosis may go unnoticed.

Although there are currently defenders of both techniques, the extracorporeal anastomosis is currently the most performed in our environment and will be used as a reference treatment in the present study.

Numerous studies have been published comparing both techniques. A very recent meta-analysis, including 12 non-randomized comparative studies with 1492 patients, concluded that intracorporeal anastomosis is associated with less morbidity and a reduction in hospital stay, suggesting a faster recovery. To date, no well-designed, prospective, randomized and randomized study exists in the literature. We believe it is necessary, therefore, to carry out a project that compares both surgical techniques in the treatment of right colon cancer and assess which is associated with a lower postoperative morbidity.

Interventions

  • Procedure: Right hemicolectomy
    • It is the resection of the right colon by a tumor and the reconstruction by an ileocolic anastomosis: intracorporeal or extracorporeal

Arms, Groups and Cohorts

  • Experimental: Intracorporeal anastomosis
    • The specimen was preferentially extracted via a small Pfannenstiel-type incision with the protection of an Alexis Wound Protector (Applied Medical, Rancho Santa Margarita, California, USA). The incision for the extraction of the right colon is sutured in two layers by absorbable suture. The ileum was held by the assistant to prevent rotation of its mesentery. A stay suture was applied 10 cm proximal and distal to the stapled ends of the terminal ileum and colon, respectively, and then held by the assistant. An enterotomy and colotomy were made sharply at the antimesenteric corner of the staple lines. An isoperistaltic side-to-side anastomosis was fashioned with a 60-mm laparoscopic stapler. A 2-0 double-barbed suture was used to close the enterocolotomy, in two planes (the first submucosal, and the second sero-serous). The mesenteric defect and the mesocolon after the construction of either type of anastomosis were not closed. Drains were not used routinely.
  • Experimental: Extracorporeal anastomosis
    • The mobilized colon was externalized preferentially via a transverse or midline incision with the protection of an Alexis Wound Protector (Applied Medical, Rancho Santa Margarita, California, USA). A stay suture was applied 10 cm proximal and distal to the stapled ends of the terminal ileum and colon. An enterotomy and colotomy were made sharply at the antimesenteric corner of the staple lines. An isoperistaltic side-to-side anastomosis was fashioned with a 60-mm laparoscopic stapler. A 2-0 double-barbed suture was used to close the enterocolotomy, in two planes (the first submucosal, and the second sero-serous). The mesenteric defect and the mesocolon after the construction of either type of anastomosis were not closed.The incision for the extraction of the right colon and the realization of the anastomosis is sutured in two layers by absorbable suture. Drains were not used routinely.

Clinical Trial Outcome Measures

Primary Measures

  • In patients with right colon cancer, laparoscopic right hemicolectomy with intracorporeal anastomosis presents less perioperative morbidity than extracorporeal anastomosis.
    • Time Frame: 24 months
    • To compare perioperative morbidity between laparoscopic right hemicolectomy with intracorporeal anastomosis versus extracorporeal anastomosis within 30 days after surgery.

Secondary Measures

  • Surgical time
    • Time Frame: 4 hours
    • o evaluate the difference in surgical time between right hemicolectomy with intracorporeal versus extracorporeal anastomosis.
  • VAS
    • Time Frame: 24 hour
    • Quantify, by means of the Visual-Analogue Scale (VAS: is determined by measuring the distance (mm) on the 10-cm line between the “no pain” anchor and the patient’s mark, providing a range of scores from 0-100. A higher score indicates greater pain intensity. Based on the distribution of pain VAS scores in post- surgical patients who described their postoperative pain intensity as none, mild, moderate, or severe, the following cut points on the pain VAS have been recommended: no pain (0-4 mm), mild pain(5-44 mm), moderate pain (45-74 mm), and severe pain (75-100 mm)), postoperative pain 24 hours after surgery and the day of hospital discharge, and determine which of the two laparoscopic right hemicolectomy techniques produces less pain.
  • Dehiscence
    • Time Frame: 30 days
    • To evaluate and compare the rate of anastomotic dehiscence in both groups of anastomoses up to 30 days after surgery.
  • Infection rate
    • Time Frame: 30 days
    • To evaluate the infection rate of the surgical site in both groups up to 30 days after surgery.
  • Days of hospital stay
    • Time Frame: 180 days
    • o compare the difference of days of hospital stay in both groups of anastomoses.

Participating in This Clinical Trial

Inclusion Criteria

  • All patients had to be 18 years of age or over, to be programmed for laparoscopic surgery for right colon neoplasm and provide a signed written consent form.

Exclusion Criteria

  • All patients who do not meet all the inclusion criteria were excluded. The other exclusion criteria included the need for emergency surgery, renal failure defined by haemodialysis, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, T4 tumor invading adjacent organs, synchronous colorectal neoplasm, metastasis or carcinomatosis at diagnosis, bowel obstruction, psychiatric disorders or contraindication for laparoscopic approach.

Gender Eligibility: All

Minimum Age: 18 Years

Maximum Age: N/A

Are Healthy Volunteers Accepted: No

Investigator Details

  • Lead Sponsor
    • Hospital Universitario Torrecárdenas
  • Collaborator
    • Sponsor- Investigator MD Ángel Reina Duarte. HUTorrecárdenas
  • Provider of Information About this Clinical Study
    • Principal Investigator: Manuel Ferrer Márquez, MD – Hospital Universitario Torrecárdenas
  • Overall Official(s)
    • Manuel Ferrer-Marquez, Principal Investigator, Colorectal Surgeon

References

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Citations Reporting on Results

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