Assessment of Intellectual Abilities for Subjects With Velopharyngeal Incompetence and Their Impact on Speech Intelligibility


To Assess effect of intelligence on speech production on subjects with velopharyngeal incompetence Search if there is any relation between congenital Velopharyngeal incompetence and decrease IQ of patients

Study Type

  • Study Type: Observational
  • Study Design
    • Time Perspective: Prospective
  • Study Primary Completion Date: July 1, 2020

Detailed Description

Speech production is a complex process by which thoughts are generated into spoken utterances. Production involves the selection of appropriate words and the appropriate form of those words from the lexicon and morphology, and the organization of those words through the syntax. Then, the phonetic properties of the words are retrieved and the sentence is uttered through the articulations associated with those phonetic properties. The term intelligibility refers to 'speech clarity' or the proportion of a speaker's output that a listener can readily understand. Velopharyngeal Incompetence (VPI) refers to any situation in which an individual is unable to completely close the nasal airway during speech. The velopharyngeal mechanism is comprised of a complex group of structures that act in unison to control airflow through the nose and mouth by elevation of the soft palate and constriction of both the lateral and posterior pharyngeal walls. Any disruption in this mechanism may result in abnormal, poorly intelligible speech. VPI can manifest as hypernasality, nasal emission, decreased vocal intensity, and/or facial grimacing. Intellectual ability refers to the skills required to think critically, see connections between disciplines and problem solve in new or changing situations. Memory, creative problem solving and vocabulary also contribute to the level of an individual's intellectual ability. Orofacial clefts (OFCs) are frequently occurring human birth defects that have a complex, multifactorial etiology. Though structural orofacial defects are often surgically corrected during infancy and early childhood, OFC patient cohorts are at high risk for neurobehavioral problems including learning disability, impaired language function, psychosocial adjustment issues, and persistently reduced academic achievement.


  • Diagnostic Test: Intelligence quotient
    • intelligence quotient (IQ) is a total score derived from several standardized tests designed to assess human intelligence

Clinical Trial Outcome Measures

Primary Measures

  • Auditory perceptual assessment
    • Time Frame: Baseline
    • Auditory-perceptual evaluation is the most commonly used clinical voice assessment method, and is often considered a gold standard for documentation of voice disorders.
  • IQ test
    • Time Frame: Baseline
    • Assess IQ level of patients by standford binet version 4. An intelligence quotient (IQ) is a total score derived from several standardized tests designed to assess human intelligence. This is to search if there is any relation between IQ level and VPI and effect on speech intelligability

Participating in This Clinical Trial

Inclusion Criteria

  • children with cleft lip and palate primary or secondary repaired – Velopharyngeal incompetence due to any cause especially short palate and deep pharynx – children above 3 years Exclusion Criteria:

  • Hearing impairment – Neurological disease – ADHD

Gender Eligibility: All

Minimum Age: 3 Years

Maximum Age: 25 Years

Investigator Details

  • Lead Sponsor
    • Assiut University
  • Provider of Information About this Clinical Study
    • Principal Investigator: Zeinab Abdel Ghani Abdel Hameed Mohamed, principle investigator at phoniatric department – Assiut University
  • Overall Contact(s)
    • Zeinab Soliman, Resident Dr., 01018119004,


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Robin NH, Baty H, Franklin J, Guyton FC, Mann J, Woolley AL, Waite PD, Grant J. The multidisciplinary evaluation and management of cleft lip and palate. South Med J. 2006 Oct;99(10):1111-20. Review.

Waitzman NJ, Romano PS, Scheffler RM. Estimates of the economic costs of birth defects. Inquiry. 1994 Summer;31(2):188-205.

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