Effects of Pentoxifylline After Cardiac Surgery


Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) is a common and serious post operative complication and may occur in up to 50% of all patients undergoing cardiac surgery and is associated with 8% mortality rate compared with 0.9% in non-affected patients and remains a major factor for post surgery adverse outcomes. Early interventions to prevent postoperative AKI can help decreasing morbidity and mortality in these patients. Using cardiopulmonary bypass during cardiac surgery triggers systemic inflammatory response and recruits pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor, interleukin -10 (IL-10) and Interleukin-6 (IL-6) accompanying with production of free oxygen radicals which provokes oxidative stress in the milieu of ischemic reperfusion injury. Pentoxifylline as a non-specific phosphodiesterase inhibitor, can suppress the production of some factors of inflammatory response and oxidative stress, probably prevent post surgery AKI with these mechanisms.

Full Title of Study: “Effects of Pentoxifylline on Reducing Acute Kidney Injury , Inflammation and Oxidative Stress After Cardiac Surgery”

Study Type

  • Study Type: Interventional
  • Study Design
    • Allocation: Randomized
    • Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
    • Primary Purpose: Prevention
    • Masking: Triple (Participant, Care Provider, Outcomes Assessor)
  • Study Primary Completion Date: June 1, 2017

Detailed Description

This is a double blind randomized multicenter clinical trial, enrolling 100 consecutive patients undergoing elective Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery (CABG). Patients randomly and within concealment method divided into two groups, one to receive oral pentoxifylline 400 mg every 8 hours from three days before surgery and the other group received placebo. All the intubation , surgery and weaning protocols were the same.


  • Other: Pentoxifylline
    • 400 mg pentoxifylline oral tablet from 3 days before surgery and on the day of surgery
  • Other: Placebo
    • oral placebo tablets from 3 days before surgery and on the day of surgery

Arms, Groups and Cohorts

  • Other: pentoxifylline oral
    • 50 adult patient underwent elective CABG intervention to be administered will be receiving main drug (pentoxifylline )oral 400 mg’ every 8 hours from three days before surgery and on the day of surgery effect of intervention regarding antioxidant
  • Placebo Comparator: placebo
    • 50 adult patient underwent elective CABG received oral placebo pill resembling completely to pentoxifylline 400 mg, every 8 hours from three days before surgery and on the day of surgery

Clinical Trial Outcome Measures

Primary Measures

  • change of creatinine level before and after cardiac surgery
    • Time Frame: change of serum creatinine level 24 hours , 72 hours and 96 hours after cardiac surgery
    • change of serum creatinine level post CABG between pentoxifylline and placebo arms

Secondary Measures

  • Oxidative stress
    • Time Frame: before and 24 hours after end of cardiac surgery
    • change of serum malondialdehyde (MDA) level as the inflammatory marker before and 24 hours after cardiac surgery
  • inflammatory status
    • Time Frame: before and 24 hours after end of cardiac surgery
    • change of serum IL-6 , TNF( tumor necrosis factor) , IL-8 between two arms post cardiac surgery
  • measuring change of (BMI) weight in kilogram and height in centimeters ratio
    • Time Frame: before and after end of cardiopulmonary bypass pomp
    • using weight and height ratio for calculating BMI

Participating in This Clinical Trial

Inclusion Criteria

  • The elective CABG candidate Exclusion Criteria:

  • refusal to sign the consent, – collagen vascular disease, – use of immunosuppressive agents, corticosteroids (> 3 days), methylxanthines, diltiazem or sodium nitroprusside, – angiography in the past 7 days, – hemorrhagic diathesis and coagulopathy, – uncontrolled diabetes mellitus – sepsis – renal failure (sCr > 2 mg/dl), – hepatic failure (AST (Aspartate transaminase) or ALT(alanine transaminase) > 40 U/L) – urinary tract infection.

Gender Eligibility: All

Minimum Age: 18 Years

Maximum Age: N/A

Are Healthy Volunteers Accepted: No

Investigator Details

  • Lead Sponsor
    • nooshin dalili
  • Provider of Information About this Clinical Study
    • Sponsor-Investigator: nooshin dalili, Assistant Professor of SBMU – Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences

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