Preoperative Pain Neuroscience Education in Patients With Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

Overview

Study Design: A double-blind randomized controlled study.

Background: Patients operated on for carpal tunnel release surgery may persist with pain after surgery, which could be modulated by psychosocial factors such as depression, catastrophic thinking and kinesiophobia.

Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy of a preoperative session in pain neuroscience education combined with postoperative therapeutic exercise in the perception of pain, functionality and psychosocial variables in patients following carpal tunnel release.

Methods: Thirty participants were randomly assigned to the pain neuroscience education group combined with postoperative therapeutic exercise (n = 15) or to the control group with preoperative usual care combined with postoperative therapeutic exercise (n = 15). Evaluations included the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), Disability of Arm, Shoulder, and Hand Questionnaire (QuickDASH), pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS), Tampa scale of kinesiophobia (TSK-11) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) . A basal, fourth and twelfth week measurement was made.

Full Title of Study: “Preoperative Pain Neuroscience Education Combined With Therapeutic Exercise Post-surgery in Patients With Carpal Tunnel Syndrome. A Double-blind Randomized Controlled Trial”

Study Type

  • Study Type: Interventional
  • Study Design
    • Allocation: Randomized
    • Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
    • Primary Purpose: Treatment
    • Masking: Double (Participant, Investigator)
  • Study Primary Completion Date: November 30, 2017

Interventions

  • Other: Preoperative Pain Neuroscience Education
    • Single session of pain neuroscience education a week prior to surgery, of an individual character, lasting approximately 30 minutes, performed by a physiotherapist trained. The main contents addressed in the educational session were: neurophysiological aspects of pain, biopsychosocial aspects of pain, concept of peripheral and central sensitization, using audio-visual support, examples and metaphors for a better understanding by the patient, as reported in previous studies. This treatment was combined with a hand therapy session seven days after the surgery, verbal and written instruction was given to the patients to perform exercises at home of active sliding of the digital flexor tendon, active opposition of the thumb and active range of flexion and extension of the wrist.
  • Other: Usual Care
    • This treatment was combined with a hand therapy session seven days after the surgery, verbal and written instruction was given to the patients to perform exercises at home of active sliding of the digital flexor tendon, active opposition of the thumb and active range of flexion and extension of the wrist.

Arms, Groups and Cohorts

  • Experimental: Pain Neuroscience Education
    • Single session of pain neuroscience education a week prior to surgery, of an individual character, lasting approximately 30 minutes, performed by a physiotherapist trained. The main contents addressed in the educational session were: neurophysiological aspects of pain, biopsychosocial aspects of pain, concept of peripheral and central sensitization, using audio-visual support, examples and metaphors for a better understanding by the patient, as reported in previous studies. This treatment was combined with a hand therapy session seven days after the surgery, verbal and written instruction was given to the patients to perform exercises at home of active sliding of the digital flexor tendon, active opposition of the thumb and active range of flexion and extension of the wrist.
  • Other: Usual Care
    • Patients in the control group received “usual care”, which consists of an educational session prior to surgery, based on medical, anatomical and pathological aspects of the syndrome. This treatment was combined with a hand therapy session seven days after the surgery, verbal and written instruction was given to the patients to perform exercises at home of active sliding of the digital flexor tendon, active opposition of the thumb and active range of flexion and extension of the wrist.

Clinical Trial Outcome Measures

Primary Measures

  • Change of Disability in upper-limb
    • Time Frame: Change from Baseline Disability at fourth and twelfth week
    • The Perception of patients of their disability in upper-limb evaluated by The Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) Spanish version Outcome Measure is a 30-item scored 1-5. The assigned values for all completed responses are simply summed and averaged. Scoring: The assigned values for all completed responses are simply summed and averaged and higher values represent a worse Disability in upper-limb.

Secondary Measures

  • Change of Pain Interference: Kinesiophobia
    • Time Frame: Change from Baseline Kinesiophobia at fourth and twelfth week
    • Kinesiophobia will be evaluated by Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia (TSK-11SV) (Spanish adaptation. Gómez-Pérez, López-Martínez y Ruiz-Párraga, 2011). Scoring: Items are summed, with a total score from 11-44 and higher values represent a worse outcome (more pain interference in behavior).
  • Change of Emotional status: Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HAD).
    • Time Frame: Change from Baseline emotional status at fourth and twelfth week
    • Patient’s emotional state will be evaluated by Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HAD), which assess the level of anxiety and depression. Subscales and score range are Anxiety (0-21) and Depression (0-21). Scoring: items of each subscale are summed, indicating: 0-7 normality, 8-10 probably case, 11-21 anxiety or depression clinical case. Higher values represent a worse outcome.
  • Change of Pain evaluation:
    • Time Frame: Change from Baseline Pain at fourth and twelfth week
    • Pain will be measured by the Visual Analog Scale for pain (VAS) from 0 to 10, where higher values represent a worse outcome (0 is no pain and 10 the maximum pain experienced).

Participating in This Clinical Trial

Inclusion Criteria

  • Patients over 18 years of age
  • Medical diagnosis of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome waiting for surgery
  • Agree to participate in the study.

Exclusion Criteria

  • Inability to understand instructions,
  • Illiteracy,
  • Previous participation in educational programs regarding pain,
  • Pathology of uncontrolled mental health,
  • Cognitive problems,
  • Previous surgeries in the operated extremity.

Gender Eligibility: All

Minimum Age: 18 Years

Maximum Age: N/A

Are Healthy Volunteers Accepted: No

Investigator Details

  • Lead Sponsor
    • Hospital Clínico La Florida
  • Provider of Information About this Clinical Study
    • Sponsor

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