Extracellular microRNA: Biomarkers of Endothelial Dysfunction in Obese Adolescents & Adults With Obstructive Sleep Apnea

Overview

Using a prospective observational approach and a clinical trial design comparing the effectiveness of continuous positive airway pressure to diet and exercise, investigators plan to evaluate how obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) leads to endothelial dysfunction in adolescents and young adults and whether treatment of OSA can improve endothelial dysfunction. Concurrently, investigators will measure miR 92a/miR 210 levels in all subjects at baseline and following therapy to determine whether miR 92a/miR 210 levels reliably predict endothelial dysfunction in patients and responses to therapy.

Full Title of Study: “Extracellular Micro RNA (miR) (Extracellular Vesicle (EV)-Associated & Non-EV-associated miRs) Identify and Mediate Endothelial Dysfunction in Obesity and Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Adolescents & Young Adults”

Study Type

  • Study Type: Interventional
  • Study Design
    • Allocation: Randomized
    • Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
    • Primary Purpose: Treatment
    • Masking: Single (Outcomes Assessor)
  • Study Primary Completion Date: July 30, 2024

Detailed Description

Investigators will randomize 100 OSA patients (age 13-21) to receive either continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) plus baseline diet/exercise (n=50) or medical management (intensive diet and exercise; n=50). Only children in whom adenotonsillectomy is contraindicated (morbid obesity, history of adenotonsillectomy, lack of adenotonsillar hypertrophy) will be included. Investigators will conduct a randomized prospective comparative effectiveness study to assess the impact of treatment on OSA on endothelial function (peripheral arterial tonometry-EndoPAT). In addition to diagnostic polysomnography and EndoPAT at baseline, EV (extracellular vesicle) and non EV derived miR 92a/miR 210 concentrations, inflammatory cytokines concentrations, and body anthropometry will be measured. Following 3 mos of therapy and after 6mos of therapy, investigators will re-evaluate EndoPAT, EV and non EV derived miR 92a/miR 210 concentrations, inflammatory cytokines, and body anthropometry. Throughout the study, investigators will maintain weekly telephone contact and monthly face-to-face visits as per standard of care in both groups to ensure ongoing success. In the medical management group (intensive diet and exercise), diet and exercise will be tracked by maintaining weekly telephone contact and monthly face-to-face visits with a registered dietician. For the CPAP group, investigators will also maintain weekly telephone contact and monthly face-to-face visits with a sleep technician to review mask fitting, and adherence reports, to optimize adherence to CPAP therapy. Following completion at six months, polysomnography will be repeated.

Interventions

  • Device: Continuous Positive Airway Pressure
    • This device delivers air pressure non invasively through a mask to stent open the upper airway to prevent obstruction during sleep. This is an FDA approved device that has been used for several decades to treat OSA.
  • Other: Diet And Exercise
    • This will consist of weekly telephone and monthly face to face visits to monitor and suggest measures to improve diet and regular exercise as conducted by a registered dietician.

Arms, Groups and Cohorts

  • Experimental: CPAP
    • This arm will consist of patients with obstructive sleep apnea who will be asked to use CPAP nightly to treat their OSA for six months
  • Active Comparator: Diet and Exercise
    • This arm will consist of patients with obstructive sleep apnea who will be asked to engage in dietary management and regular exercise for six months.

Clinical Trial Outcome Measures

Primary Measures

  • Peripheral Arterial Tonometry – Reactive Hyperemic Index
    • Time Frame: At baseline.
    • EndoPAT
  • Peripheral Arterial Tonometry – Reactive Hyperemic Index
    • Time Frame: At three months.
    • EndoPAT
  • Peripheral Arterial Tonometry – Reactive Hyperemic Index
    • Time Frame: At six months.
    • EndoPAT

Secondary Measures

  • miRNA 92a and miRNA 210 levels
    • Time Frame: At baseline.
    • Serum and Extracellular Vesicle derived miR 92a and miR 210 levels
  • miR 92a and miR 210 levels
    • Time Frame: At three months.
    • Serum and Extracellular Vesicle derived miR 92a and miR 210 levels
  • miR 92a and miR 210 levels
    • Time Frame: At six months.
    • Serum and Extracellular Vesicle derived miR 92a and miR 210 levels

Participating in This Clinical Trial

Inclusion Criteria

  • Otherwise healthy children and young adults with a diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea based on polysomnography criteria of an obstructive apnea hypopnea index > 10 events/hr. – For children a BMI range up to 99.7% and for adults BMI up to 32 kg/m2 is used. Exclusion Criteria:

  • The presence of elevated blood pressure – The presence of diabetes or pre-diabetes – The presence of craniofacial anomalies – The presence of neuromuscular disorders – The presence of syndromic or defined genetic abnormalities – Pregnancy – History of smoking (any smoking within the prior 6 mos or >5 pack years total) – The presence of infectious disease (e.g. including hepatitis B, C, HIV etc.) – The presence of collagen vascular disease (e.g. lupus, arthritis, scleroderma, polymyositis, mixed-connective tissue disease, vasculitis etc) – The presence of hepatic disease (including hepatitis fatty liver or cirrhosis) – The presence of renal disease (including azotemia or clinical proteinuria) – The presence of cardiopulmonary disease (e.g. known asthma, cystic fibrosis, congenital heart disease) – Individuals using medications which could affect sleep or breathing (including hypnotics) – Individuals using chronic anti-inflammatory therapy – Individuals with any subjects with acute or chronic illness. – Individuals using anti-hypertensive therapies – Children with a a BMI > 99.7% – Adults with a BMI > 32 kg/m2

Gender Eligibility: All

Minimum Age: 18 Years

Maximum Age: 21 Years

Are Healthy Volunteers Accepted: Accepts Healthy Volunteers

Investigator Details

  • Lead Sponsor
    • University of California, San Diego
  • Provider of Information About this Clinical Study
    • Principal Investigator: Rakesh Bhattacharjee, Associate Professor of Clinical Pediatrics – University of California, San Diego
  • Overall Contact(s)
    • Rakesh Bhattacharjee, MD, 858-966-5846, rakesh@ucsd.edu

References

Bhattacharjee R, Khalyfa A, Khalyfa AA, Mokhlesi B, Kheirandish-Gozal L, Almendros I, Peris E, Malhotra A, Gozal D. Exosomal Cargo Properties, Endothelial Function and Treatment of Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome: A Proof of Concept Study. J Clin Sleep Med. 2018 May 15;14(5):797-807. doi: 10.5664/jcsm.7110.

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