Remote Ischemic Conditioning in Patients With Acute Stroke (RESIST)

Overview

Our primary aim is to investigate whether remote ischemic conditioning (RIC) as an adjunctive treatment can improve long-term recovery in acute stroke patients as an adjunct to standard treatment.

Full Title of Study: “Remote Ischemic Conditioning in Patients With Acute Stroke: a Multicenter Randomized, Patient-assessor Blinded, Sham-controlled Study”

Study Type

  • Study Type: Interventional
  • Study Design
    • Allocation: Randomized
    • Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
    • Primary Purpose: Treatment
    • Masking: Double (Participant, Outcomes Assessor)
  • Study Primary Completion Date: December 31, 2022

Detailed Description

Stroke is the second-leading cause of death worldwide and a leading cause of serious, long-term disability. The most common type is acute ischemic stroke (AIS) which occurs in 85% of cases. Acute cerebral thromboembolism leads to an area of permanent damage (infarct core) in the most severely hypoperfused area and a surrounding area of impaired, yet salvageable tissue known as the "ischemic penumbra". Intravenous alteplase (IV tPA) and endovascular treatment (EVT) are approved acute reperfusion treatments of AIS to be started within the first 4½-6 hours (in some up to 24 hours) and as soon as possible after symptom onset to prevent the evolution of the infarct core. However, reperfusion itself may paradoxically result in tissue damage (reperfusion injury) and may contribute to infarct growth. Infarct progression can continue for days following a stroke, and failure of the collateral flow is a critical factor determining infarct growth. On the other hand, in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) the culprit is an eruption of blood into the brain parenchyma causing tissue destruction with a massive effect on adjacent brain tissues. Hematoma expansion as well as inflammatory pathways that are activated lead to further tissue damage, edema, and penumbral hypoperfusion. The prognosis after ICH is poor with a one-month mortality of 40%. Novel therapeutics and neuroprotective strategies that can be started ultra-early after symptom onset are urgently needed to reduce disability in both AIS and ICH. Ischemic conditioning is one of the most potent activators of endogenous protection against ischemia-reperfusion injury. Remote Ischemic Conditioning (RIC) can be applied as repeated short-lasting ischemia in a distant tissue that results in protection against subsequent long-lasting ischemic injury in the target organ. This protection can be applied prior to or during a prolonged ischemic event as remote ischemic pre-conditioning (RIPreC) and per-conditioning (RIPerC), respectively, or immediate after reperfusion as remote ischemic post-conditioning (RIPostC). RIC is commonly achieved by inflation of a blood pressure cuff to induce 5-minute cycles of limb ischemia alternating with 5 minutes of reperfusion. Preclinical studies show that RIC induces a promising infarct reduction in an experimental stroke model. Results from a recent proof-of-concept study at our institution indicate that RIPerC applied during ambulance transportation as an adjunctive to in-hospital IV tPA increases brain tissue survival after one month. Furthermore, RIPerC patients had less severe neurological symptoms at admission and tended to have decreased perfusion deficits. To-date, no serious adverse events have been documented in RIC. RIC is a non-pharmacologic and non-invasive treatment without noticeable discomfort that has first-aid potential worldwide. However, whether combined remote ischemic per- and postconditioning can improve long-term recovery in AIS and ICH has never been investigated in a randomized controlled trial.

Interventions

  • Device: Remote Ischemic Conditioning
    • RIC is commonly achieved by inflation of a blood pressure cuff to induce 5-minute cycles of limb ischemia alternating with 5 minutes of reperfusion.
  • Device: Sham Remote Ischemic Conditioning
    • Sham Comparator (Sham-RIC)

Arms, Groups and Cohorts

  • Active Comparator: Remote Ischemic Conditioning
    • Remote ischemic conditioning (RIC) is applied in the hyperacute prehospital phase using an automated RIC device. Treatment characteristics: Five cycles (50 minutes), each consisting of five minutes of cuff inflation followed by five minutes with a deflated cuff. The cuff pressure will be 200 mmHg; but if initial systolic blood pressure is above 175 mmHg, the cuff is automatically inflated to 35 mmHg above the systolic blood pressure. Initial remote ischemic conditioning: prehospital phase, all included patients Remote ischemic conditioning at +6 hours: In-hospital, only patients with AIS and ICH, all centres Remote Ischemic Postconditioning (twice daily for 7 days): In-hospital/rehabilitation, Only patients with AIS and ICH and only at Aarhus University Hospital Usual care with or without acute reperfusion therapy
  • Sham Comparator: Sham – Remote Ischemic Conditioning
    • Sham remote ischemic conditioning (Sham-RIC) is applied in the hyperacute prehospital phase using an automated Sham-RIC device. Treatment characteristics: Five cycles (50 minutes), each consisting of five minutes of cuff inflation followed by five minutes with a deflated cuff. The cuff pressure will be always be 20 mmHg. Initial Sham remote ischemic conditioning: prehospital phase, all included patients Sham Remote ischemic conditioning at +6 hours: In-hospital, only patients with AIS and ICH, all centres Sham Remote Ischemic Postconditioning (twice daily for 7 days): In-hospital/rehabilitation, Only patients with AIS and ICH and only at Aarhus University Hospital Usual care with or without acute reperfusion therapy.

Clinical Trial Outcome Measures

Primary Measures

  • Clinical outcome (mRS) at 3 months in acute stroke (AIS and ICH)
    • Time Frame: 3 months
    • Clinical outcome (modified Rankin Scale) at 3 months in acute stroke patients (target diagnosis) (generalized ordinal logistic regression). The assessment will performed by two independent telephone or face-to-face assessors. If disagreement occurs the patient will be contacted by a third assessor (face-to-face or telephone) who is blinded to the intervention who will assess the level of dependency. If disagreement occurs between two telephone assessments – a third, and final, telephone or face-to-face assessment will be made. If disagreement occurs between one face-to-face assessment and one telephone assessment the face-to-face will be considered the final assessment If disagreement occurs between two face-to-face assessments – a third, and final, telephone or face-to-face assessment will be made.

Secondary Measures

  • Difference neurological impairment during the first 24 hours in all randomized patients
    • Time Frame: 24 hours
    • Neurological deficits are documented using PreSS (Prehospital Stroke score both prehospital and in-hospital). Prehospital Stroke Score is assessed at 24-hour or at discharge (if discharge occurs before 24 hours). The PreSS score consists of the Cincinnati Prehospital Stroke Scale (CPSS) with an additional opportunity to report other neurological symptoms (e.g. ataxia, sensory disturbances and visual field loss), and PASS (Prehospital Acute Stroke Severity Scale) Ordinal logistic regression
  • Clinical outcome (modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at 3 months in acute ischemic stroke
    • Time Frame: 3 months
    • The assessment will performed by two independent telephone or face-to-face assessors Ordinal logistic regression analysis will be performed.
  • Clinical outcome (modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at 3 months in acute ischemic stroke receiving reperfusion therapy
    • Time Frame: 3 months
    • The assessment will performed by two independent telephone or face-to-face assessors Ordinal logistic regression analysis will be performed.
  • Clinical outcome (modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at 3 months in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH)
    • Time Frame: 3 months
    • The assessment will performed by two independent telephone or face-to-face assessors Ordinal logistic regression analysis will be performed.
  • Difference in proportion of patients with complete remission of symptoms within 24 hours (TIA; both with and without DWI)
    • Time Frame: 3 months
    • Difference in proportion of patients with complete remission of symptoms within 24 hours (TIA; both with and without DWI) Diagnosis of TIA is documented in the electronic case report form
  • Major Adverse Cardiac and Cerebral Events (MACCE) and recurrent ischemic events based on registry data at 3 and 12 months in ICH, AIS patients, TIA and non-vascular diagnosis
    • Time Frame: 12 months
    • MACCE is defined as: Cardiovascular events (cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, acute ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke) Cardiovascular death: Death from known cardiovascular cause or sudden death from unknown cause (no identified cause of death in medical history and/or autopsy) Acute myocardial infarction: Admission with a discharge diagnosis of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) and unstable angina pectoris (UAP) Stroke: Admission with a discharge diagnosis of acute ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke. Evaluation is performed using the Danish National Patient Register (LPR) and the DSR at two time points (6 and 15 months after the inclusion of the last patient). Diagnosis of AIS/TIA, ICH and MI (STEMI, NSTEMI, and UAP) are made according to national clinical practice guidelines.
  • Early neurological improvement in acute ischemic stroke patients (AIS)
    • Time Frame: 24 hours
    • Reduction in National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) ≥ 4 (baseline versus 24-Hour NIHSS)
  • Early neurological improvement in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH)
    • Time Frame: 24 hours
    • Reduction in National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) ≥ 4 (baseline versus 24-Hour NIHSS)
  • Quality of life measures at 3 months in AIS and ICH patients
    • Time Frame: 3 months
    • Quality of life (WHO-5) measures in AIS and ICH patients
  • Bed-day use in AIS and ICH patients
    • Time Frame: 3 months
    • Bed-day use, measured at 3 months, in AIS and ICH patients
  • Three-month and one-year mortality
    • Time Frame: 3 and 12 months
    • All-cause mortality is assessed and subdivided into cardiovascular mortality versus non-cardiovascular mortality

Participating in This Clinical Trial

Inclusion Criteria

  • Male and female patients (≥ 18 years) – Prehospital putative stroke (Prehospital Stroke Score, PreSS >= 1) – Onset of stroke symptoms < 4 hours before RIC/Sham-RIC – Independent in daily living before symptom onset (mRS ≤ 2) Exclusion Criteria:
  • Intracranial aneurisms, intracranial arteriovenous malformation, cerebral neoplasm or abscess – Pregnancy – Severe peripheral arterial disease in the upper extremities – Concomitant acute life-threatening medical or surgical condition – Arteriovenous fistula in the arm selected for RIC
  • Gender Eligibility: All

    Minimum Age: 18 Years

    Maximum Age: N/A

    Are Healthy Volunteers Accepted: No

    Investigator Details

    • Lead Sponsor
      • Grethe Andersen
    • Collaborator
      • Center of Functionally Integrative Neuroscience (CFIN) Aarhus University
    • Provider of Information About this Clinical Study
      • Sponsor-Investigator: Grethe Andersen, Professor, DMSc, Senior Consultant, MD – Aarhus University Hospital
    • Overall Official(s)
      • Grethe Andersen, MD, DMSc, Principal Investigator, Aarhus University Hospital, Department of Neurology
    • Overall Contact(s)
      • Rolf A Blauenfeldt, MD, 61368874, rolfblau@rm.dk

    References

    Hess DC, Blauenfeldt RA, Andersen G, Hougaard KD, Hoda MN, Ding Y, Ji X. Remote ischaemic conditioning-a new paradigm of self-protection in the brain. Nat Rev Neurol. 2015 Dec;11(12):698-710. doi: 10.1038/nrneurol.2015.223. Epub 2015 Nov 20. Review.

    Hougaard KD, Hjort N, Zeidler D, Sørensen L, Nørgaard A, Hansen TM, von Weitzel-Mudersbach P, Simonsen CZ, Damgaard D, Gottrup H, Svendsen K, Rasmussen PV, Ribe LR, Mikkelsen IK, Nagenthiraja K, Cho TH, Redington AN, Bøtker HE, Østergaard L, Mouridsen K, Andersen G. Remote ischemic perconditioning as an adjunct therapy to thrombolysis in patients with acute ischemic stroke: a randomized trial. Stroke. 2014 Jan;45(1):159-67. doi: 10.1161/STROKEAHA.113.001346. Epub 2013 Nov 7.

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