Cross Country Poling Specific Motor Skill- and Strength Training.

Overview

Will motor skill- and/or strength training affect technique, work economy and time performance in cross-country poling? Competitive cross-country skiers (age 16- 30) will perform a 10 weeks training intervention. They will be randomized in one of the following three groups: poling specific motor skill training 3 times per week in addition to their regular training, maximal strength training 3 times per week in addition to their regular training and a control group who only perform their regular training. Pre- and post intervention, all participants will perform tests in VO2max (running), VO2max (poling), work economy (poling), video and inertial measurement unit (IMU) analyzes of poling technique, time performance test (poling), motor skill tests and maximal strength tests.

Full Title of Study: “Motor Skill- and Strength Training; Importance for Technique, Work Economy and Time Performance in Cross Country Poling”

Study Type

  • Study Type: Interventional
  • Study Design
    • Allocation: Randomized
    • Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
    • Primary Purpose: Basic Science
    • Masking: None (Open Label)
  • Study Primary Completion Date: April 1, 2018

Detailed Description

Motor Skill- and Maximal Strength Training; Importance for Technique, Work Economy and Time Performance in Cross Country Poling Purpose The relative use of poling in classic cross-country skiing has increased over the last years. (Danielsen et al 2015). As a result of this poling performance has become increasingly important for over all classic cross-country skiing performance. Poling performance with best possible technical skills, implying high velocity with a least possible energy cost (C) should thus be beneficial. Previous research (Østerås et al 2002) has shown improved work economy in poling after maximal strength training (MST). To the investigators knowledge, the effect of motor skill training (MOT) on C has not previously been investigated. In this study MOT and MST will therefore be investigated (in two different groups of cross-country skiers), how they may affect poling technique, C, lactate threshold (LT) and poling performance. The results from this study may give further insight and knowledge in scientific based training practice.

The purpose of this study is thus to investigate if:

1. MOT results in technical changes in poling?

2. MST results in technical changes in poling?

3. MOT improves C in poling?

4. MST improves C in poling?

5. changes in 1-4 improves time performance in poling?

In order to investigate this, competitive cross-country skiers (age 16- 30) will perform a 10 weeks training intervention. They will be randomized in one of the following three groups: poling specific motor skill training (10-12 x 3 repetitions maximum, RM) in specific designed cross country exercises 3 times per week in addition to their regular training. Further, maximal strength training in squat, dead lift, bench press, bench pull and pull down (2-5 x 3 repetitions RM) 3 times per week in addition to their regular training and a control group who only perform their regular training. Pre- and post intervention, all participants will perform tests in VO2max (running), VO2max (poling), work economy (poling), video and IMU analyzes of poling technique, time performance test (poling), motor skill tests and maximal strength tests.

Interventions

  • Other: training intervention, motor skill training
    • cross country specific motor skill strength training
  • Other: training intervention, maximal strength training
    • general maximal strength training
  • Other: control group
    • regular training

Arms, Groups and Cohorts

  • Experimental: Motor skill training
    • training intervention. Poling specific indoor motor skill exercises performed 3 times pr week for 10 weeks in addition to regular training
  • Experimental: Maximal strength training
    • training intervention. Maximal strength exercises performed 3 times pr week for 10 weeks in addition to regular training
  • Experimental: Control group
    • Only regular training

Clinical Trial Outcome Measures

Primary Measures

  • Time trial poling on a roller ski tarmac track
    • Time Frame: 10 weeks
    • Seconds used in a 6 km track.

Secondary Measures

  • Video analyzes of technique
    • Time Frame: 10 weeks
    • Joint angles. Unique outcome measure.
  • Analyzes of angular velocity by use of IMU (inertial movement devices)
    • Time Frame: 10 weeks
    • Degree/second by use of gyrometer from the Musclelab System from Ergotest Technology. Unique outcome measure.
  • Analyzes of external force (N) in poles during poling
    • Time Frame: 10 weeks
    • Force measurements by use of the Musclelab System from Ergotest Technology. Unique outcome measure.
  • Maximal pulldown strength (RM/kg)
    • Time Frame: 10 weeks
    • Kilos in pulldown. Unique outcome measure.
  • Maximal leggpress strength (RM/kg)
    • Time Frame: 10 weeks
    • Kilos in leggpress. Unique outcome measure.
  • Maximal pulldown power (Watt)
    • Time Frame: 10 weeks
    • Watts in pulldown by use of Musclelab.System (Ergotest Technology). Unique outcome measure.
  • Maximal leggpress power (Watt)
    • Time Frame: 10 weeks
    • Watts in leggpress by use of Musclelab.System (Ergotest Technology). Unique outcome measure.
  • Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max, ml/kg/min) in running on treadmill
    • Time Frame: 10 weeks
    • Ergospirometrical incremental (ramp) protocols using Cortex Metalyzer. Unique outcome measure.
  • Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max, ml/kg/min) in poling on treadmill
    • Time Frame: 10 weeks
    • Ergospirometrical incremental (ramp) protocols using Cortex Metalyzer. Unique outcome measure.
  • Lactate threshold (mmol/L blood) in poling on treadmill
    • Time Frame: 10 weeks
    • Measurement of lactate using Lactate Scout (EKF Diagnostics) in different submaximal work periods up to the point reaching warm up values plus 2,3 mmol/L. Unique outcome measure.
  • Poling economy
    • Time Frame: 10 weeks
    • Measurement of oxygen consumption per meter poling. Unique outcome measure.

Participating in This Clinical Trial

Inclusion Criteria

  • healthy, competitive cross country athletes 16-30 years old

Exclusion Criteria

  • contraindications to maximal strength training and strength and endurance testing

Gender Eligibility: All

Minimum Age: 16 Years

Maximum Age: 30 Years

Are Healthy Volunteers Accepted: Accepts Healthy Volunteers

Investigator Details

  • Lead Sponsor
    • Telemark University College
  • Collaborator
    • The Norwegian Olympic Sports Center (Olympiatoppen)
  • Provider of Information About this Clinical Study
    • Sponsor
  • Overall Official(s)
    • Arnstein Sunde, MSC, Principal Investigator, Telemark UC
    • Øyvind Støren, PhD, Study Chair, Telemark UC
  • Overall Contact(s)
    • Arnstein Sunde, MSC, 004795080164, arnstein.sunde@hit.no

References

Danielsen J, Sandbakk Ø, Holmberg HC, Ettema G. Mechanical Energy and Propulsion in Ergometer Double Poling by Cross-country Skiers. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2015 Dec;47(12):2586-94. doi: 10.1249/MSS.0000000000000723.

Østerås H, Helgerud J, Hoff J. Maximal strength-training effects on force-velocity and force-power relationships explain increases in aerobic performance in humans. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2002 Dec;88(3):255-63. Epub 2002 Oct 17.

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