Anticholium® Per Se

Overview

Anticholium® per Se is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, monocentric trial to assess whether the CAP can be transferred from bench to bedside. In this pilot study, 20 patients with perioperative sepsis and septic shock as a result of intra-abdominal infection are enrolled. According to randomization, participants are treated with physostigmine salicylate (verum group) or 0.9% sodium chloride (placebo group) for up to 5 days. The mean Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score during treatment and subsequent intensive care of up to 14 days is used as surrogate outcome (primary endpoint). Secondary outcome measures include 30- and 90-day mortality. An embedded pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics study investigates plasma concentrations of physostigmine and its metabolite eseroline. Further analyses will contribute to the understanding of the role of various cytokines in the pathophysiology of human sepsis. A computer-generated list is used for blocked randomization.

Full Title of Study: “Anticholium® Per Se a Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled, Monocentric Trial on the Adjunctive Use of Physostigmine Salicylate (Anticholium®) in Perioperative Sepsis and Septic Shock”

Study Type

  • Study Type: Interventional
  • Study Design
    • Allocation: Randomized
    • Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
    • Primary Purpose: Treatment
    • Masking: Quadruple (Participant, Care Provider, Investigator, Outcomes Assessor)
  • Study Primary Completion Date: February 18, 2017

Interventions

  • Drug: Physostigmine
  • Drug: Isotonic Saline

Arms, Groups and Cohorts

  • Active Comparator: Treatment Group
    • The treatment group receives an infusion of 0.04 mg/kg physostigmine salicylate with a maximum dose of 4 mg. The infusion is administered at 0.4 mg/min (= 1 mL/min = 60 mL/h). The initial dose is followed by a continuous infusion of 0.017 mg/min, i.e. 1 mg/h (= 0.042 mL/min = 2.5 mL/h) for 2-5 days, i.e. 48-120 hours (treatment phase).
  • Placebo Comparator: Placebo Group
    • The placebo group is treated with 0.9% sodium chloride.

Clinical Trial Outcome Measures

Primary Measures

  • mean Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score
    • Time Frame: up to 14 d, assessed 2 h±30 min, 24±2 h, 48±2 h, 72±2 h, 96±2 h, 120±2 h, 6 d±4 h, 7 d±4 h, 8 d±8 h, 9 d±8 h, 10 d±8 h, 11 d±8 h, 12 d±8 h, 13 d±8 h, 14 d±8 h after continuous infusion is commenced
    • The mean SOFA score (at least two individual values) during treatment and subsequent intensive care of up to 14 days is used as surrogate outcome in critically ill patients with perioperative sepsis and septic shock due to intra-abdominal infection.

Secondary Measures

  • duration of artificial ventilation
    • Time Frame: up to 90 d
  • duration of intensive care
    • Time Frame: up to 90 d
  • length of stay
    • Time Frame: up to 90 d
  • 30-day mortality
    • Time Frame: 30 d
  • 90-day mortality
    • Time Frame: 90 d
  • arterial blood gas analyses
    • Time Frame: up to 90 d, assessed 2 h±30 min, 24±2 h, 48±2 h, 72±2 h, 96±2 h, 120±2 h, 6 d±4 h, 7 d±4 h, 8 d±8 h, 9 d±8 h, 10 d±8 h, 11 d±8 h, 12 d±8 h, 13 d±8 h, 14 d±8 h, 28 d±8 h, 30 d±8 h, 84 d±8 h, 90 d±8 h after continuous infusion is commenced
  • central venous blood gas analyses
    • Time Frame: up to 90 d, assessed 2 h±30 min, 24±2 h, 48±2 h, 72±2 h, 96±2 h, 120±2 h, 6 d±4 h, 7 d±4 h, 8 d±8 h, 9 d±8 h, 10 d±8 h, 11 d±8 h, 12 d±8 h, 13 d±8 h, 14 d±8 h, 28 d±8 h, 30 d±8 h, 84 d±8 h, 90 d±8 h after continuous infusion is commenced
  • partial pressure of arterial oxygen (PaO2)
    • Time Frame: up to 90 d, assessed 2 h±30 min, 24±2 h, 48±2 h, 72±2 h, 96±2 h, 120±2 h, 6 d±4 h, 7 d±4 h, 8 d±8 h, 9 d±8 h, 10 d±8 h, 11 d±8 h, 12 d±8 h, 13 d±8 h, 14 d±8 h, 28 d±8 h, 30 d±8 h, 84 d±8 h, 90 d±8 h after continuous infusion is commenced
  • fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2)
    • Time Frame: up to 90 d, assessed 2 h±30 min, 24±2 h, 48±2 h, 72±2 h, 96±2 h, 120±2 h, 6 d±4 h, 7 d±4 h, 8 d±8 h, 9 d±8 h, 10 d±8 h, 11 d±8 h, 12 d±8 h, 13 d±8 h, 14 d±8 h, 28 d±8 h, 30 d±8 h, 84 d±8 h, 90 d±8 h after continuous infusion is commenced
  • platelet count
    • Time Frame: up to 90 d, assessed 2 h±30 min, 24±2 h, 48±2 h, 72±2 h, 96±2 h, 120±2 h, 6 d±4 h, 7 d±4 h, 8 d±8 h, 9 d±8 h, 10 d±8 h, 11 d±8 h, 12 d±8 h, 13 d±8 h, 14 d±8 h, 28 d±8 h, 30 d±8 h, 84 d±8 h, 90 d±8 h after continuous infusion is commenced
  • leukocyte count
    • Time Frame: up to 90 d, assessed 2 h±30 min, 24±2 h, 48±2 h, 72±2 h, 96±2 h, 120±2 h, 6 d±4 h, 7 d±4 h, 8 d±8 h, 9 d±8 h, 10 d±8 h, 11 d±8 h, 12 d±8 h, 13 d±8 h, 14 d±8 h, 28 d±8 h, 30 d±8 h, 84 d±8 h, 90 d±8 h after continuous infusion is commenced
  • creatinine
    • Time Frame: up to 90 d, assessed 2 h±30 min, 24±2 h, 48±2 h, 72±2 h, 96±2 h, 120±2 h, 6 d±4 h, 7 d±4 h, 8 d±8 h, 9 d±8 h, 10 d±8 h, 11 d±8 h, 12 d±8 h, 13 d±8 h, 14 d±8 h, 28 d±8 h, 30 d±8 h, 84 d±8 h, 90 d±8 h after continuous infusion is commenced
  • urea
    • Time Frame: up to 90 d, assessed 2 h±30 min, 24±2 h, 48±2 h, 72±2 h, 96±2 h, 120±2 h, 6 d±4 h, 7 d±4 h, 8 d±8 h, 9 d±8 h, 10 d±8 h, 11 d±8 h, 12 d±8 h, 13 d±8 h, 14 d±8 h, 28 d±8 h, 30 d±8 h, 84 d±8 h, 90 d±8 h after continuous infusion is commenced
  • total bilirubin
    • Time Frame: up to 90 d, assessed 2 h±30 min, 24±2 h, 48±2 h, 72±2 h, 96±2 h, 120±2 h, 6 d±4 h, 7 d±4 h, 8 d±8 h, 9 d±8 h, 10 d±8 h, 11 d±8 h, 12 d±8 h, 13 d±8 h, 14 d±8 h, 28 d±8 h, 30 d±8 h, 84 d±8 h, 90 d±8 h after continuous infusion is commenced
  • C-reactive protein
    • Time Frame: up to 90 d, assessed 2 h±30 min, 24±2 h, 48±2 h, 72±2 h, 96±2 h, 120±2 h, 6 d±4 h, 7 d±4 h, 8 d±8 h, 9 d±8 h, 10 d±8 h, 11 d±8 h, 12 d±8 h, 13 d±8 h, 14 d±8 h, 28 d±8 h, 30 d±8 h, 84 d±8 h, 90 d±8 h after continuous infusion is commenced
  • prothrombin time
    • Time Frame: up to 90 d, assessed 2 h±30 min, 24±2 h, 48±2 h, 72±2 h, 96±2 h, 120±2 h, 6 d±4 h, 7 d±4 h, 8 d±8 h, 9 d±8 h, 10 d±8 h, 11 d±8 h, 12 d±8 h, 13 d±8 h, 14 d±8 h, 28 d±8 h, 30 d±8 h, 84 d±8 h, 90 d±8 h after continuous infusion is commenced
  • D-dimer
    • Time Frame: up to 90 d, assessed 2 h±30 min, 24±2 h, 48±2 h, 72±2 h, 96±2 h, 120±2 h, 6 d±4 h, 7 d±4 h, 8 d±8 h, 9 d±8 h, 10 d±8 h, 11 d±8 h, 12 d±8 h, 13 d±8 h, 14 d±8 h, 28 d±8 h, 30 d±8 h, 84 d±8 h, 90 d±8 h after continuous infusion is commenced
  • procalcitonin
    • Time Frame: up to 90 d, assessed 2 h±30 min, 24±2 h, 48±2 h, 72±2 h, 96±2 h, 120±2 h, 6 d±4 h, 7 d±4 h, 8 d±8 h, 9 d±8 h, 10 d±8 h, 11 d±8 h, 12 d±8 h, 13 d±8 h, 14 d±8 h, 28 d±8 h, 30 d±8 h, 84 d±8 h, 90 d±8 h after continuous infusion is commenced
  • IL-6
    • Time Frame: up to 30 d, assessed 2 h±30 min, 24±2 h, 48±2 h, 72±2 h, 96±2 h, 120±2 h, 6 d±4 h, 7 d±4 h, 14 d±8 h, 28 d±8 h, 30 d±8 h after continuous infusion is commenced
  • thrombin-antithrombin complex
    • Time Frame: up to 30 d, assessed 2 h±30 min, 24±2 h, 48±2 h, 72±2 h, 96±2 h, 120±2 h, 6 d±4 h, 7 d±4 h, 14 d±8 h, 28 d±8 h, 30 d±8 h after continuous infusion is commenced
  • mean blood pressure
    • Time Frame: up to 90 d, assessed 2 h±30 min, 24±2 h, 48±2 h, 72±2 h, 96±2 h, 120±2 h, 6 d±4 h, 7 d±4 h, 8 d±8 h, 9 d±8 h, 10 d±8 h, 11 d±8 h, 12 d±8 h, 13 d±8 h, 14 d±8 h, 28 d±8 h, 30 d±8 h, 84 d±8 h, 90 d±8 h after continuous infusion is commenced
  • frequency of vasopressors
    • Time Frame: up to 90 days
  • duration of vasopressors
    • Time Frame: up to 90 days
  • frequency of renal replacement therapy
    • Time Frame: up to 90 days
  • duration of renal replacement therapy
    • Time Frame: up to 90 days
  • Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score
    • Time Frame: up to 90 d, assessed 2 h±30 min, 24±2 h, 48±2 h, 72±2 h, 96±2 h, 120±2 h, 6 d±4 h, 7 d±4 h, 8 d±8 h, 9 d±8 h, 10 d±8 h, 11 d±8 h, 12 d±8 h, 13 d±8 h, 14 d±8 h, 28 d±8 h, 30 d±8 h, 84 d±8 h, 90 d±8 h after continuous infusion is commenced
  • Acute Physiology And Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score
    • Time Frame: up to 90 d, assessed 2 h±30 min, 24±2 h, 48±2 h, 72±2 h, 96±2 h, 120±2 h, 6 d±4 h, 7 d±4 h, 8 d±8 h, 9 d±8 h, 10 d±8 h, 11 d±8 h, 12 d±8 h, 13 d±8 h, 14 d±8 h, 28 d±8 h, 30 d±8 h, 84 d±8 h, 90 d±8 h after continuous infusion is commenced
  • Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS) II score
    • Time Frame: up to 90 d, assessed 2 h±30 min, 24±2 h, 48±2 h, 72±2 h, 96±2 h, 120±2 h, 6 d±4 h, 7 d±4 h, 8 d±8 h, 9 d±8 h, 10 d±8 h, 11 d±8 h, 12 d±8 h, 13 d±8 h, 14 d±8 h, 28 d±8 h, 30 d±8 h, 84 d±8 h, 90 d±8 h after continuous infusion is commenced
  • occurrence of side effects
    • Time Frame: up to 6 d, assessed 2 h±30 min, 24±2 h, 48±2 h, 72±2 h, 96±2 h, 120±2 h, 6 d±4 h after continuous infusion is commenced
    • nausea or vomiting, clinically relevant changes in heart rate or blood pressure (mainly hypotension), and clinically relevant changes in airway resistance (mainly bronchiospasms as a result of hypersensitivity reactions to the sodium metabisulfite contained in the investigational medicinal product spontaneous breathing: acute dyspnea or artificial ventilation: clinically relevant decline in respiratory volume at constant pressure settings, or clinically relevant incline in peak or inspiratory pressures at constant respiratory volumes)

Participating in This Clinical Trial

Inclusion Criteria

  • Age 18-85 years
  • APACHE II score <34
  • Intra-abdominal infection
  • findings of diffuse peritonitis or a circumscribed abscess
  • Perioperative sepsis
  • and secure evidence of infection, clinically backed up or secured microbiologically
  • ≥2 of the following four criteria:
  • fever ≥38.0° C or hypothermia ≤36.0° C secured by rectal intravesical or intravascular measurement
  • tachycardia ≥90/min
  • tachypnea ≥20/min or hyperventilation secured by arterial blood gas analysis with PaCO2 ≤4.3 kPa or 33 mmHg or mechanical artificial respiration
  • leukocytosis ≥12,000/mm³ or leukopenia ≤4000/mm³ or ≥10% immature neutrophils in the differential count
  • Shock (<24 h duration): necessary use of vasopressors despite adequate fluid resuscitation to keep systolic blood pressure ≥90 mmHg or mean blood pressure ≥70 mmHg
  • No more than one planned and/or one emergency basis/as an emergency procedure performed since admission (no repeated revisions)
  • No infaust prognosis of a primary or concomitant illness, expecting the death within the follow-up phase
  • No do-not-resuscitate order
  • Written informed consent of full-age patients/their legal guardian to participate [written consent (according to AMG § 40 (1) 3b)] and unable to consent adults [§ 41 (1) 2 AMG)]

Exclusion Criteria

  • Known hypersensitivity to physostigmine salicylate, sodium metabisulfite, sodium EDTA, or any of the other ingredients of Anticholium®
  • Known contraindications against Anticholium®: gangrene, coronary artery disease
  • Known absolute contraindications against Anticholium®: myotonic dystrophy; depolarization block by depolarizing muscle relaxants; intoxication by "irreversibly acting" cholinesterase inhibitors; closed craniocerebral trauma; obstruction in the gastrointestinal tract (mechanical constipation); obstruction in the urinary tract (mechanical urinary retention)
  • Known relative contraindications against Anticholium®: bronchial asthma; bradycardia; AV-conduction disturbances
  • Having undergone splenectomy
  • Having undergone solid organ transplantation
  • Positive pregnancy test, pregnancy, and lactation
  • Participation in another clinical trial, according to AMG or the follow-up phase of another study, according to AMG

Gender Eligibility: All

Minimum Age: 18 Years

Maximum Age: 85 Years

Are Healthy Volunteers Accepted: No

Investigator Details

  • Lead Sponsor
    • University Hospital Heidelberg
  • Provider of Information About this Clinical Study
    • Principal Investigator: Johannes Zimmermann, Dr. med. Johannes B. Zimmermann, MSc – University Hospital Heidelberg
  • Overall Official(s)
    • Johannes B Zimmermann, MD, MSc, Principal Investigator, University Hospital Heidelberg

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