The Effect of Plasma-air-filtration on the Incidence of Surgical Site Infections in Orthopaedic Surgery

Overview

The study is a multicenter, double-blind, randomized, controlled trial conducted at six major university and teaching hospitals with a catchment population of approximately 2 million. In the current study it has been hypothesized that a non-invasive air cleaner utilizing a plasma chamber can significantly reduce the incidence of surgical site infections (SSIs).

Full Title of Study: “The Effect of Air-filtration Through a Plasma Chamber on the Incidence of Surgical Site Infections in Orthopaedic Surgery: a Double-blind, Randomized, Controlled Trial”

Study Type

  • Study Type: Interventional
  • Study Design
    • Allocation: Randomized
    • Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
    • Primary Purpose: Prevention
    • Masking: Triple (Participant, Care Provider, Investigator)
  • Study Primary Completion Date: December 2021

Detailed Description

Despite operating in clean theaters, surface sterilization, and antibiotics, surgical site infections (SSI) after orthopaedic surgery have an estimated incidence of 1-4%. This feared complication is associated with long-term antibiotics, repeated surgeries, prolonged hospital stays, economic burden and a poorer end result for individual patients. It is therefore of great importance to prevent SSI.While skin bacteria and contaminated surfaces have generally been claimed to be the main cause of infections, there are estimates that approximately 20% of hospital-acquired infections are air-transmitted, making this an interesting intervention target. Novaerus is an air-cleaner that sterilizes the air particles through a plasma chamber. Air in the operating theatre is pumped through the chamber (80-380 m3/Hr) and by using a small current it transforms the gas in the vicinity of the electrode into plasmaand eradicates any bacteria that pass through.The small size of the machine allows it to fit into any operating theater without interfering with existing equipment. This technology can reduce the number of colony forming units (CFU) when in hospital settings. In non-randomized settings it has been correlated to reduced respiratory infections, reduced personnel sick-leave, and absence of severe infectious outbreaks. Its effect has not been validated in randomized controlled trials. Both local and national registry data will be used according to availability.

Interventions

  • Device: Novaerus NV800 on
    • The air-cleaner sterilizes the air particles through a plasma chamber. Air in the operating theatre is pumped through the chamber (80 – 380 m3/Hr) and by using a small current it transforms the gas in the vicinity of the electrode into plasma and eradicates any bacteria that pass through. The air-cleaner has to have been turned on for at least 2 days prior to the surgical intervention.
  • Device: Novaerus NV800 off
    • The machine decribed above is running but the plasma filter chamber isn’t active, i.e. the placebo group.
  • Device: Novaerus NV800 on or off
    • Patients with multiple surgeries that have been operated during both periods when the apparatus has been on and off will belong to this mixed group.

Arms, Groups and Cohorts

  • Experimental: Exposed patients: Plasma-filter on
    • Those operated with Novaerus NV800 on for at least 2 Days prior to index surgery. This Group will also in the analysis be sub-grouped according to measurements prior to study start into: regular operating theater ultra-Clean operating theaters
  • Experimental: Unexposed patients: Plasma-filter off
    • Those with Novaerus NV800 off for at least 2 Days prior to index surgery
  • Experimental: Mixed patients: Plasma-filter on or off
    • Those receiving multiple surgeries in different theaters with Novaerus NV800 on or off status will belong to a mixed Group.

Clinical Trial Outcome Measures

Primary Measures

  • Number of patients with surgical site infection after orthopaedic surgery, defined as any of the following: using antibiotics targeting Staphylococcus aureus, having ICD-codes or surgery codes indicating postoperative infection.
    • Time Frame: Within 12 weeks after surgery
    • All definitions are merged into one binary outcome measure as “any(No. > 0)”

Secondary Measures

  • Patients using any antibiotics after surgery
    • Time Frame: Two treatment days or more during the first 30 postoperative days
    • This is identified either via hospital information system or from the national drug registry. Usage is defined as withdrawal or prescription of a drug with ATC code within the J01 group.
  • Number of days with antibiotics
    • Time Frame: During the first 30 postoperative days
    • This is identified either via hospital information system or from the national drug registry. Usage is defined as withdrawal or prescription of a drug with ATC code within the J01 group. Number of days is deduced from the prescribed dosage or if not present the average daily dosage for that particular drug is used.
  • Patients using any antibiotics after surgery
    • Time Frame: Two treatment days or more during the first 90 postoperative days
    • This is identified either via hospital information system or from the national drug registry. Usage is defined as withdrawal or prescription of a drug with ATC code within the J01 group.
  • Number of days with antibiotics
    • Time Frame: Two treatment days or more during the first 90 postoperative days
    • This is identified either via hospital information system or from the national drug registry. Usage is defined as withdrawal or prescription of a drug with ATC code within the J01 group. Number of days is deduced from the prescribed dosage or if not present the average daily dosage for that particular drug is used.
  • Death
    • Time Frame: during the first 2 postoperative years
    • Any cause of death

Participating in This Clinical Trial

Inclusion Criteria

  • All patients that undergo a 30 minute or longer orthopaedic surgery Exclusion Criteria:

  • The following surgeries will be excluded: already infected surgical site, defined as: ICD-codes indicating infection, Open fractures, Traumatic wounds, Vacuum assisted wound therapy – Patients that have had antibiotics prescribed 2 weeks or less prior to surgery – Patients that have actively marked their hospital charts with an added privacy notice

Gender Eligibility: All

Minimum Age: N/A

Maximum Age: N/A

Are Healthy Volunteers Accepted: No

Investigator Details

  • Lead Sponsor
    • Karolinska Institutet
  • Collaborator
    • The Swedish Research Council
  • Provider of Information About this Clinical Study
    • Principal Investigator: Max Gordon, M.D., PhD – Karolinska Institutet
  • Overall Official(s)
    • Max Gordon, M.D, PhD, Principal Investigator, Danderyd Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden
  • Overall Contact(s)
    • Max Gordon, M.D., PhD, +46 8 123 558 84, max.gordon@ki.se

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