Tissue Penetration of Ceftolozane/Tazobactam in Diabetic Patients With Lower Limb Infections

Overview

This study will determine the tissue penetration of ceftolozane/tazobactam (Zerbaxa, Merck & Co.), a novel β-lactam/β-lactamase combination antibiotic, into the extracellular, interstitial fluid of soft tissue in diabetic patients with lower limb wound infections. Penetration will be compared with a group of healthy volunteer control participants.

Study Type

  • Study Type: Interventional
  • Study Design
    • Allocation: Non-Randomized
    • Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
    • Primary Purpose: Other
    • Masking: None (Open Label)
  • Study Primary Completion Date: April 2017

Detailed Description

This study will enroll 10 patients with diabetes who are admitted with a lower limb wound infection and 6 healthy volunteer control participants. The study will take place in an inpatient unit at Hartford Hospital for all patients and in the Clinical Research Center at Hartford Hospital for all healthy volunteers. All participants will receive at least 3 doses of ceftolozane/tazobactam 1.5g every 8 hours. A microdialysis probe (Mdialysis Inc., N. Chelmsford MA) will be inserted into the subcutaneous soft tissue near the margin of the wound (patients) or in the thigh (healthy volunteers). The microdialysis probe is perfused with lactated Ringer's solution and samples are collected each hour for 8 hours after the final dose. A peripheral intravenous catheter will be inserted into an arm vein to collect blood samples simultaneously with microdialysis samples. Concentrations in tissue are compared with blood to determine percent penetration.

Interventions

  • Drug: Ceftolozane/tazobactam
    • 3 or more doses of ceftolozane/tazobactam intravenously administered over 60 minutes every 8 hours
  • Procedure: Microdialysis Catheter Insertion
    • A 20 kila-Dalton microdialysis probe (63 MD catheter; MDialysis Inc., N. Chelmsford, MA) will be inserted into the subcutaneous tissue at the margin of the wound (patient group) or in the thigh tissue (healthy volunteers). The probe will be left in place for the final dose and all tissue sampling procedures thereafter. This probe is perfused with a physiologic solution to collect interstitial fluid samples. The probe will then be removed after completion of sample collection.

Arms, Groups and Cohorts

  • Experimental: Diabetic Wound Infection
    • Participants with a documented history of Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes and a mild to moderate (Grade 2 or 3) wound infection of the lower limb will receive at least 3 doses of intravenous ceftolozane/tazobactam 1.5g every 8 hours, followed by sampling of interstitial tissue fluid at the margin of the wound by a microdialysis probe over 8 hours.
  • Active Comparator: Healthy Volunteer
    • Participants will be male or female healthy adult volunteers with no significant medical or medication history. Participants will receive at least 3 doses of intravenous ceftolozane/tazobactam 1.5g every 8 hours, followed by sampling of interstitial tissue fluid in the thigh by a microdialysis probe over 8 hours.

Clinical Trial Outcome Measures

Primary Measures

  • Ceftolozane Tissue Penetration
    • Time Frame: 16-24 hours
    • The ratio of ceftolozane tissue concentration area under the curve (AUC) to plasma concentrations AUC following the final (i.e., 3rd) ceftolozane/tazobactam dose. Note. Ceftolozane/tazobactam doses were administered at 0, 8, and 16 hours. Plasma and dialysate concentrations were determined at hours 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, and 24 hours after the first dose for determination of ceftolozane AUC in blood and tissue.
  • Tazobactam Tissue Penetration
    • Time Frame: 16-24 hours
    • The ratio of tazobactam tissue concentration area under the curve (AUC) to plasma concentration AUC following the final (3rd) ceftolozane/tazobactam dose. Note. Ceftolozane/tazobactam doses were administered at 0, 8, and 16 hours. Plasma and dialysate concentrations were determined at hours 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, and 24 hours after the first dose for determination of tazobactam AUC in blood and tissue.

Secondary Measures

  • Ceftolozane Area Under the Curve (AUC) in Tissue
    • Time Frame: 16 to 24 hours post-dose
    • The ceftolozane AUC in tissue from 16 to 24 hours. Note. Ceftolozane/tazobactam doses were administered at 0, 8, and 16 hours. Dialysate concentrations were determined at hours 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, and 24 hours after the first dose for determination of ceftolozane AUC.
  • Tazobactam AUC in Tissue
    • Time Frame: 16 to 24 hours post-dose
    • The tazobactam AUC in tissue over 16 to 24 hours Note. Ceftolozane/tazobactam doses were administered at 0, 8, and 16 hours. Dialysate concentrations were determined at hours 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, and 24 hours after the first dose for determination of tazobactam AUC.
  • Ceftolozane Total Drug AUC in Plasma
    • Time Frame: 16 to 24 hours post-dose
    • The ceftolozane total drug AUC in plasma over 16 to 24 hours Note. Ceftolozane/tazobactam doses were administered at 0, 8, and 16 hours. Plasma concentrations were determined at hours 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, and 24 hours after the first dose for determination of ceftolozane AUC.
  • Tazobactam Total Drug AUC in Plasma
    • Time Frame: 16 to 24 hours post-dose
    • The tazobactam total drug AUC in plasma over 16 to 24 hours Note. Ceftolozane/tazobactam doses were administered at 0, 8, and 16 hours. Plasma concentrations were determined at hours 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, and 24 hours after the first dose for determination of tazobactam AUC.
  • Number of Participants With Adverse Events
    • Time Frame: Duration of study (34 hours)
    • Number of reported or documented adverse events recorded during participation in the study.

Participating in This Clinical Trial

Inclusion Criteria

  • Experimental: Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes and a mild to moderate (Grade 2 or 3) wound infection of the lower limb
  • Active Comparator: Healthy Adult Volunteer

Exclusion Criteria

All Participants:

  • Less than 18 years of age
  • History of hypersensitivity to ceftolozane/tazobactam, piperacillin/tazobactam, or any β-lactam antibiotic
  • History of hypersensitivity to lidocaine or lidocaine derivatives
  • Females who are pregnant or breastfeeding
  • Concomitant receipt of any β-lactams antibiotic
  • Concomitant receipt of probenecid
  • Reduced kidney function defined as creatinine clearance of ≤ 50 mL/min
  • Any other reason felt by the investigator to potentially affect the outcomes of the study

Experimental Group Only:

  • No palpable pedal pulses present
  • Participants likely to require multiple surgical interventions during the study period, which therefore could affect placement of the microdialysis catheter

Active Comparator Group Only:

  • Positive urine drug screen (cocaine, tetrahydrocannabinol, opiates, benzodiazepines, and amphetamines)
  • History of regular alcohol consumption exceeding 7 drinks/week for females or 14 drinks/week for men (1 drink = 5 ounces of wine or 12 ounces of beer or 1.5 ounces of hard liquor) within 6 months of screening.
  • Use of tobacco- or nicotine-containing products in excess of the equivalence of 5 cigarettes per day.
  • Use of prescription or nonprescription drugs, vitamins, or dietary supplements within 7 days or 5 half-lives (whichever is longer) prior to the first dose of study medication, with the exception of acetaminophen at doses of ≤ 1 g/day. Herbal supplements, hormonal methods of contraception (including oral and transdermal contraceptives, injectable progesterone, progestin subdermal implants, progesterone-releasing intrauterine devices (IUDs), postcoital contraceptive methods), and hormone replacement therapy must be discontinued at least 14 days prior to the first dose of study medication. Depo-Provera® must be discontinued at least 6 months prior to the first dose of study medication.

Gender Eligibility: All

Minimum Age: 18 Years

Maximum Age: N/A

Are Healthy Volunteers Accepted: Accepts Healthy Volunteers

Investigator Details

  • Lead Sponsor
    • Hartford Hospital
  • Collaborator
    • Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp.
  • Provider of Information About this Clinical Study
    • Sponsor
  • Overall Official(s)
    • David P Nicolau, PharmD, Principal Investigator, Harford Hospital

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