Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Versus Laparoscopic Mini Gastric Bypass

Overview

Several retrospective studies have shown same efficiency in regard to weight loss, with a lower rate of complications for the laparoscopic mini gastric bypass (LMGB) compared to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB). The aim of this double-blinded randomized controlled trial is to compare the two procedures in respect of excess weight loss, complications, operation time, length of stay and the metabolic impact on the hormonal brain-gut-axis.

Full Title of Study: “Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Versus Laparoscopic Mini Gastric Bypass: A Randomized Controlled Trial”

Study Type

  • Study Type: Interventional
  • Study Design
    • Allocation: Randomized
    • Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
    • Primary Purpose: Treatment
    • Masking: Double (Participant, Outcomes Assessor)
  • Study Primary Completion Date: November 2017

Detailed Description

Bariatric surgery, the only effective treatment for morbid obesity, has shown effective long term weight loss and good control of obesity related comorbidities in randomized controlled trials.

Obesity related diseases, such as hypertension, type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, osteoarthritis and various tumours, have a significant socio-economic impact, since the cost of the obesity epidemic is 5.7 billion Swiss francs yearly.

According to the current Swiss National Guidelines defined by the Swiss Group for Morbid Obesity surgical therapy is indicated in cases of BMI 35 kg/m2 or higher, showing better weight reduction and control of comorbidties than conservative therapy alone. Obesity reduces quality of life and life expectancy dramatically. Furthermore it has a significant impact on our economy. Bariatric surgery is likely to improve all of these negative impacts on society.

The most commonly performed procedures at present are laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding, laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) and laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG).

LRYGB is considered the golden standard in bariatric surgery, although little evidence is available to justify this standpoint. In fact, the choice of the surgical procedure depends more on patient factors such as present comorbidities and operative risk. Therefore, surgeons consult after a work up within a multidisciplinary team of caretakers such as nutritionists, endocrinologists and psychiatrists and chose a patient tailored approach. Recently, the laparoscopic mini gastric bypass (LMGB) has gained worldwide popularity in addition to the standard available procedures for the treatment of morbid obesity. Therefore, it has been added by the Swiss Group for Morbid Obesity as a surgical option, which has to be evaluated in clinical trials.

Robert Rutledge, the pioneer of the LMGB, published in 2001 results of 1274 patients, who received surgical treatment with LMGB. After two years the patients showed an excess weight loss (EWL) of 77%. The rate of anastomotic leakage in the gastroenterostomy amounted 1.6%. The rate of mortality was 0.08%. Subsequently, Rutledge published in 2005 the results of 2410 patients with a follow up of 38.7 months. These cohort reached/achieved an EWL of 80% after a year and even after 5 years 5% of all these patients showed a weight rebound of maximum 10 kg. In fact, those results seemed superior to outcomes of the other standard bariatric procedures.

The rate of anastomotic leakage was 1.08%, mortality 0.08%. Long-term complications were ulcer disease (4%) and iron deficiency (5%). Both complications are also known in LRYGB with similar rates.

The first and only randomized controlled trial comparing the LRYGB to LMGB was carried out by Lee in 2005. With a group of 40 patients the effectiveness of LMGB was compared to the LRYGB. The authors found an EWL of 64.9% after one and 64.4% after two years, respectively, in patients having a LMGB accompanied by less complications and a shorter hospitalization time than in LRYGB. Patients with LRYGB had an EWL of 58.7% and 60%, respectively.

These results showed similar benefits of the LMGB compared to LRYGB. This is in accordance with the already mentioned observational studies.

Interventions

  • Procedure: Mini Gastric Bypass
    • The mini gastric bypass procedure was first developed by Dr Robert Rutledge from the USA in 1997, as a modification of the standard Billroth II procedure. A mini gastric bypass creates a long narrow tube of the stomach along its right border (the lesser curvature). A loop of the small gut is brought up and hooked to this tube at about 180 cm from the start of the intestine. No drugs or devices will be used.
  • Procedure: Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass
    • This variant is the most commonly employed gastric bypass technique, and is by far the most commonly performed bariatric procedure in the United States. The small intestine is divided approximately 45 cm (18 in) below the lower stomach outlet and is re-arranged into a Y-configuration, enabling outflow of food from the small upper stomach pouch via a “Roux limb”. In the proximal version, the Y-intersection is formed near the upper (proximal) end of the small intestine. The Roux limb is constructed using 80-150 cm (31-59 in) of the small intestine, preserving the rest (and the majority) of it for absorbing nutrients. No drugs or devices will be used.

Arms, Groups and Cohorts

  • Experimental: Mini Gastric Bypass
    • The mini gastric bypass procedure was first developed by Dr Robert Rutledge from the USA in 1997, as a modification of the standard Billroth II procedure. A mini gastric bypass creates a long narrow tube of the stomach along its right border (the lesser curvature). A loop of the small gut is brought up and hooked to this tube at about 180 cm from the start of the intestine. No drugs or devices will be used.
  • Active Comparator: Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass
    • This variant is the most commonly employed gastric bypass technique, and is by far the most commonly performed bariatric procedure in the United States. The small intestine is divided approximately 45 cm (18 in) below the lower stomach outlet and is re-arranged into a Y-configuration, enabling outflow of food from the small upper stomach pouch via a “Roux limb”. In the proximal version, the Y-intersection is formed near the upper (proximal) end of the small intestine. The Roux limb is constructed using 80-150 cm (31-59 in) of the small intestine, preserving the rest (and the majority) of it for absorbing nutrients. No drugs or devices will be used.

Clinical Trial Outcome Measures

Primary Measures

  • Excess Weight Loss
    • Time Frame: 1 year postoperative

Secondary Measures

  • Early surgical complications
    • Time Frame: ≤ 30 days
  • Early non-surgical complications
    • Time Frame: ≤ 30 days
  • Operation time
    • Time Frame: intraoperative
    • Operation time measured in minutes for the primary procedure (e.g. LRYGB or LMGB)
  • Length of stay
    • Time Frame: up to 24 weeks
    • Length of stay after the primary operation (e.g. LRYGB or LMGB)
  • Subjective perception of the appetite and saturation
    • Time Frame: 6 weeks, 1 and 3 years
    • measured by questionnaires
  • Hormonal assay (Ghrelin)
    • Time Frame: preoperative, 6 weeks, 1 and 3 years
    • measured in pg/ml
  • Hormonal assay (GLP-1)
    • Time Frame: preoperative, 6 weeks, 1 and 3 years
    • measured in pg/ml
  • Hormonal assay (PYY)
    • Time Frame: preoperative, 6 weeks, 1 and 3 years
    • measured in pg/ml
  • Glucose homeostasis
    • Time Frame: preoperative, 6 weeks, 1 and 3 years
  • Lipid profile
    • Time Frame: preoperative, 6 weeks, 1 and 3 years
    • LDL (mg/dl), HDL (mg/dl), triglycerides (mg/dl), total cholesterol (mg/dl)

Participating in This Clinical Trial

Inclusion Criteria

  • BMI > 35
  • age > 18

Exclusion Criteria

  • malignancy
  • lack of compliance
  • BMI > 50

Gender Eligibility: All

Minimum Age: 18 Years

Maximum Age: 65 Years

Are Healthy Volunteers Accepted: No

Investigator Details

  • Lead Sponsor
    • Spital Limmattal Schlieren
  • Provider of Information About this Clinical Study
    • Principal Investigator: Marko Kraljevic, MD, MD – Spital Limmattal Schlieren
  • Overall Official(s)
    • Urs Zingg, MD, Principal Investigator, Spital Limmattal Schlieren
  • Overall Contact(s)
    • Marko Kraljevic, MD, +41 79 942 50 10, marko.kraljevic@gmail.com

Citations Reporting on Results

Sjöström L, Narbro K, Sjöström CD, Karason K, Larsson B, Wedel H, Lystig T, Sullivan M, Bouchard C, Carlsson B, Bengtsson C, Dahlgren S, Gummesson A, Jacobson P, Karlsson J, Lindroos AK, Lönroth H, Näslund I, Olbers T, Stenlöf K, Torgerson J, Agren G, Carlsson LM; Swedish Obese Subjects Study. Effects of bariatric surgery on mortality in Swedish obese subjects. N Engl J Med. 2007 Aug 23;357(8):741-52.

Adams TD, Gress RE, Smith SC, Halverson RC, Simper SC, Rosamond WD, Lamonte MJ, Stroup AM, Hunt SC. Long-term mortality after gastric bypass surgery. N Engl J Med. 2007 Aug 23;357(8):753-61.

Colquitt JL, Pickett K, Loveman E, Frampton GK. Surgery for weight loss in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014 Aug 8;(8):CD003641. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD003641.pub4. Review.

Rutledge R. The mini-gastric bypass: experience with the first 1,274 cases. Obes Surg. 2001 Jun;11(3):276-80.

Lee WJ, Yu PJ, Wang W, Chen TC, Wei PL, Huang MT. Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y versus mini-gastric bypass for the treatment of morbid obesity: a prospective randomized controlled clinical trial. Ann Surg. 2005 Jul;242(1):20-8.

Rutledge R, Walsh TR. Continued excellent results with the mini-gastric bypass: six-year study in 2,410 patients. Obes Surg. 2005 Oct;15(9):1304-8.

Lee WJ, Ser KH, Lee YC, Tsou JJ, Chen SC, Chen JC. Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y vs. mini-gastric bypass for the treatment of morbid obesity: a 10-year experience. Obes Surg. 2012 Dec;22(12):1827-34. doi: 10.1007/s11695-012-0726-9.

Wittgrove AC, Clark GW. Laparoscopic gastric bypass, Roux-en-Y- 500 patients: technique and results, with 3-60 month follow-up. Obes Surg. 2000 Jun;10(3):233-9.

Rutledge R. Similarity of Magenstrasse-and-Mill and Mini-Gastric bypass. Obes Surg. 2003 Apr;13(2):318.

Christou NV, Look D, Maclean LD. Weight gain after short- and long-limb gastric bypass in patients followed for longer than 10 years. Ann Surg. 2006 Nov;244(5):734-40.

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