Prolonged Infusion Cefepime and Nosocomial Infections


It is advocated that prolonged infusion of beta-lactamic antibiotics provides better bactericidal effect. The aim of the present study is to randomize patients a to extended cefepime infusion regimen (lasting four hours) or to a usual infusion regimen (not lasting more than thirty minutes) and evaluate the clinical efficacy of this theoretical pharmacokinetic advantage.

Study Type

  • Study Type: Interventional
  • Study Design
    • Allocation: Randomized
    • Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
    • Primary Purpose: Treatment
    • Masking: None (Open Label)
  • Study Primary Completion Date: March 2016

Detailed Description

Introduction: it has been proved that the main determinant for microbiological cure gram-negative infections treated with cefepime is the time above minimal inhibitory concentration (T>MIC). Although this particular pharmacokinetic property have never been proved in clinical trials utilizing cefepime, intervention studies with other betalactamic antibiotics, such as pipercillin-tazobactam, showed clinical benefit.

Objective: to evaluate if prolonged infusion (lasting 4 hours) with cefepime translate into better clinical outcomes.

Methods: the investigators aim to conduct an open-label, unique-centered, randomized controlled trial using cefepime in prolonged infusions in patients being treated for urinary or respiratory tract infections. Patients developing these infections after 72 hours of hospital admission, requiring the use of broader spectrum antibiotics after clinical failure or isolating gram-negative bacteria from adequate sample sensible to cefepime will be enrolled. The use of a second antibiotic such as clindamycin, vancomycin or metronidazole will be allowed.

Interventions: the investigators aim to randomize 134 patients to two different treatment arms, the intervention arm who will receive the medication in a four hour lasting infusion, and the active control arm who will receive the medication in a 30 minutes lasting infusion. The randomization will be conducted in blocks of ten patients each, and it will be balance according to the patients age (older or younger than 65 years old) and presence of SIRS criteria.


  • Drug: Prolonged Cefepime Infusion
    • Cefepime infusion should last at least 4 hours with the aide of an infusion bomb
  • Drug: Usual Cefepime Infusion
    • Cefepime infusion occurs directly without the aide of an infusion bomb, lasting roughly thirty minutes

Arms, Groups and Cohorts

  • Experimental: Prolonged Cefepime Infusion
    • Cefepime infusions should last 4 hours at least
  • Active Comparator: Usual Cefepime Infusion
    • Cefepime infusion should last no more than 30 minutes

Clinical Trial Outcome Measures

Primary Measures

  • Death
    • Time Frame: 30 days
    • Death in 30 days since randomization

Secondary Measures

  • Death
    • Time Frame: 14 days
    • Death in 14 days since randomization
  • Duration of hospital stay
    • Time Frame: 30 days since randomization
    • Duration of hospital stay
  • Intensive care unit (ICU) admission
    • Time Frame: 30 days since randomization
    • Intensive care necessity for any reason
  • Duration of intensive care unit (ICU) stay
    • Time Frame: 30 days since randomization
    • Number of days when intensive care was considered necessary
  • Treatment change
    • Time Frame: 3 days after randomization
    • Treatment change required based com clinical or microbiological data
  • Treatment success
    • Time Frame: 30 days since randomization
    • Patient reaching the completion until it end with infection resolution
  • Time to clinical stability
    • Time Frame: 3 days
    • Time required for patient to reach the normalization of all following vital signs: that is, body temperature lower than 37,9 degrees celsius, a cardiac rate lower than 100 beats per minute and a respiratory rate lower than 25 respiratory movements per minute and peripheral oxygen saturation higher than 91% with low oxygen requirement (that is 4 liters per minute delivered by nasal canula)

Participating in This Clinical Trial

Inclusion Criteria

  • Urinary tract infection after 48-72 hours of hospital stay
  • Respiratory tract infection after 48-72 hours of hospital stay
  • Catheter related urinary tract infection after 48-72 hours of hospital stay
  • Urinary or respiratory infections not responding to a narrower spectrum antibiotic
  • Isolation of bacteria sensible to cefepime in blood, urine or sputum in a clinical context of infection

Exclusion Criteria

  • Glomerular filtration rate lower than 30 ml.min/1,73m²
  • ICU admission for at least 72 hours before randomization
  • Neutrophil count lower than 1000 cels per mm³
  • Hematologic malignancy, bronchiectasis and cystic fibrosis
  • Patients allergic to cefepime
  • Concomitant treatment to another infectious disease
  • Central nervous system, cutaneous or intrabdominal infections
  • Solid organ transplantation
  • HIV with a cluster differentiation 4 (CD4) lower than 100 cels per mm³

Gender Eligibility: All

Minimum Age: 18 Years

Maximum Age: 80 Years

Are Healthy Volunteers Accepted: No

Investigator Details

  • Lead Sponsor
    • Hospital de Clinicas de Porto Alegre
  • Provider of Information About this Clinical Study
    • Sponsor
  • Overall Official(s)
    • Eduardo Sprinz, Principal Investigator, Hospita de Clínicas de Porto Alegre
  • Overall Contact(s)
    • André Dias Américo, +555193112207,

Clinical trials entries are delivered from the US National Institutes of Health and are not reviewed separately by this site. Please see the identifier information above for retrieving further details from the government database.

At, we keep tabs on over 200,000 clinical trials in the US and abroad, using medical data supplied directly by the US National Institutes of Health. Please see the About and Contact page for details.