Systematic Approach for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Obstructive Lung Diseases

Overview

The differential diagnosis of asthma and COPD is sometimes difficult. Recently, an overlap syndrome has been defined based on the concurrence of asthma and COPD characteristics. These characteristics are based on expert opinions and have never been investigated nor validated prospectively.

The investigators assume that the management strategy, the symptom burden and disease progression will differ between asthma, COPD and ACOS. Therefore, the study wants to establish baseline criteria for an appropriate disease definition and evaluate the potential impact on treatment and symptom control.

Study Type

  • Study Type: Observational
  • Study Design
    • Time Perspective: Prospective
  • Study Primary Completion Date: April 2020

Detailed Description

This study aims to test a diagnostic algorithm for obstructive airways diseases that may be used in daily practice to obtain a correct differential diagnosis and, hence, initiate an adequate therapy according to the current guidelines. The proposed algorithm will be used to categorize patients in 4 different diagnoses with specific treatment choices: asthma, obstructive asthma, overlap asthma with COPD, and COPD. The study will evaluate which tests and criteria contribute most to the diagnostic work-up and final diagnosis.

Test battery for diagnosis

- spirometry with bronchodilator reversibility testing

- bodyplethysmography: spirometry, volumes, resistance, diffusing capacity

- exhaled NO

- blood sample

- CT scan of thorax (only when obstructive spirometry)

- histamine challenge (only when spirometry is not obstructive)

- induced sputum (not for protocol interpretation)

Definition of endpoints

1. Physician based diagnosis:

diagnosis based on clinical exam and spirometry

2. Algorithm based diagnosis:

diagnosis based on clinical exam and test battery

3. Final standard diagnosis diagnosis based on clinical exam, test battery and clinical evolution of 1 year.

Interventions

  • Drug: LABA + LAMA
    • An open label inhaled therapy is initiated once the diagnosis has been set based on clinical and testing criteria (algorithm). The treatment may be changed in function of the clinical evolution, which is left at the discretion of the general practitionar. Changes in treatment and treatment doses are registered during 1 year follow-up.
  • Drug: ICS
    • An open label inhaled therapy is initiated once the diagnosis has been set based on clinical and testing criteria (algorithm). The treatment may be changed in function of the clinical evolution, which is left at the discretion of the general practitionar. Changes in treatment and treatment doses are registered during 1 year follow-up.
  • Drug: LABA + LAMA + ICS
    • An open label inhaled therapy is initiated once the diagnosis has been set based on clinical and testing criteria (algorithm). The treatment may be changed in function of the clinical evolution, which is left at the discretion of the general practitionar. Changes in treatment and treatment doses are registered during 1 year follow-up.
  • Drug: LABA + ICS
    • An open label inhaled therapy is initiated once the diagnosis has been set based on clinical and testing criteria (algorithm). The treatment may be changed in function of the clinical evolution, which is left at the discretion of the general practitionar. Changes in treatment and treatment doses are registered during 1 year follow-up.
  • Drug: other
    • An open label therapy or no therapy is initiated once the diagnosis has been set based on clinical and testing criteria (algorithm). The treatment may be changed in function of the clinical evolution, which is left at the discretion of the general practitionar. Changes in treatment and treatment doses are registered during 1 year follow-up.

Arms, Groups and Cohorts

  • CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE
    • Patients with an obstructive spirometry and characteristics of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease Clinical intervention: Long acting B agonist (LABA) + Long acting muscarinic receptor antagonist (LAMA) inhaled therapy
  • ASTHMA
    • patients with asthma and a normal spirometry Clinical intervention: Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS)
  • ASTHMA COPD OVERLAP SYNDROME
    • patients with an obstructive spirometry and characteristics of both COPD and Asthma Clinical Intervention: LABA + LAMA + ICS
  • OBSTRUCTIVE ASTHMA
    • patients with an obstructive spirometry and characteristics of asthma Clinical Intervention: LABA + ICS inhaled therapy
  • OTHER
    • patients with another diagnosis or healthy persons clinical Intervention: undefined – according to diagnosis

Clinical Trial Outcome Measures

Primary Measures

  • Accuracy of the proposed diagnostic algorithm
    • Time Frame: after work-up at inclusion (at baseline)
    • % changes of algorithm diagnosis compared to physician based diagnosis (based on spirometry only)
  • Accuracy of the proposed diagnostic algorithm (at one year follow-up)
    • Time Frame: at one year
    • % changes of algorithm diagnosis compared to final diagnosis (based on all tests with clinical evolution for 1 year))

Secondary Measures

  • Difference in ACT/CAT-scores
    • Time Frame: 3 months
    • Difference of ACT/CAT-score between arms at 3 months
  • Difference in ACT/CAT-scores
    • Time Frame: 1 year
    • Difference of ACT/CAT-scores between arms at 1 year
  • Difference in Delta ACT/CAT scores (0 – 3 months)
    • Time Frame: 3 months
    • Difference of delta ACT/CAT-scores (0 – 3 months) between arms
  • Difference in Delta ACT/CAT scores (0 – 1 year)
    • Time Frame: 1 year
    • Difference of delta ACT/CAT-scores (0 – 1 year) between arms
  • specificity and sensitivity of individual criteria for final diagnosis
    • Time Frame: 1 year
    • ROC curve analysis for individual criteria in predicting final diagnosis
  • independency of criteria for final diagnosis
    • Time Frame: 1 year
    • Logistic regression analysis for criteria in predicting final diagnosis

Participating in This Clinical Trial

Inclusion Criteria

  • Subjects with respiratory symptoms suggestive of chronic airway disease

Exclusion Criteria

  • Subjects with an immediate need for hospitalization or a treatment of systemic glucocorticoid or long-term antibiotics
  • Subjects with pregnancy
  • Subjects with clinically significant cardiovascular disease that warrants intervention
  • Subject with concomitant pulmonary diseases (pulmonary embolism, interstitial lung disease etc..).

Gender Eligibility: All

Minimum Age: 30 Years

Maximum Age: 80 Years

Are Healthy Volunteers Accepted: No

Investigator Details

  • Lead Sponsor
    • KU Leuven
  • Provider of Information About this Clinical Study
    • Principal Investigator: Wim Janssens, Prof. Dr. Wim Janssens – KU Leuven
  • Overall Official(s)
    • Wim Janssens, MD, Principal Investigator, KU Leuven

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