Inspiratory Muscle Training and Hospital Complications


The inspiratory muscle training (IMT) is a feasible and safe strategy for patients and athletes, your goal is to recondition the respiratory muscles, providing optimization of lung capacity, either for high performance sport as to support metabolic wear caused by illness. It is generally agreed the positive impact of the application of a TMI Protocol on maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP), this benefit encourages individuals sick since weaning from mechanical ventilation (MV), to the optimization of physical performance in cardiac and / or pulmonary rehabilitation. The TMI is based on the principles: the burden imposed on the muscle; the specificity of training; the reversibility of the gain and muscle atrophy.

Full Title of Study: “Safety and Efficacy of Inspiratory Muscle Training for Preventing Adverse Outcomes in Patients at Risk of Prolonged Hospitalization”

Study Type

  • Study Type: Interventional
  • Study Design
    • Allocation: Randomized
    • Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
    • Primary Purpose: Treatment
    • Masking: Triple (Participant, Care Provider, Outcomes Assessor)
  • Study Primary Completion Date: February 2016

Detailed Description

This prospective double-blind (patient and evaluator) randomised controlled trial compared the efficacy of inspiratory muscle training and inspiratory muscle training. The study protocol for this trial was described elsewhere. This study was conducted in accordance with Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials recommendations. The trial was performed at the Roberto Santos General Hospital in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. This study was approved by the institutional hospital ethics committee (approval reference number 03/2014). Before enrolment, written informed consent was obtained from participants or their legal guardians.


  • Device: Powerbreathe
    • Respiratory equipment for physiotherapy, offering to load muscles inspiratory
  • Other: Physiotherapy
    • This was contemplated cinesioterapia unloaded, muscle stretching, coughing technique, sedestração and ambulation if the participant was fit.

Arms, Groups and Cohorts

  • Experimental: IMT group and physiotherapy
    • Inspiratory muscle training with POWERBREATHE an approximate load of 50 % of MIP , for 1 set of 30 breaths twice a day, 7 days a week for 4 weeks ( total 56 sessions). Associated with physiotherapy program.
  • Placebo Comparator: Sham IMT group
    • Inspiratory muscle training with the same device in the experimental group , however without charge , for 1 set of 30 breaths twice a day, 7 days a week for 4 weeks ( total 56 sessions). Associated with physiotherapy program.

Clinical Trial Outcome Measures

Primary Measures

  • hospital inpatient complications
    • Time Frame: Discharge from hospital
    • Follow-up during hospitalization

Secondary Measures

  • respiratory muscle strength
    • Time Frame: After 4 weeks follow
    • Measured with manometer for 3 reps.

Participating in This Clinical Trial

Inclusion Criteria

  • Admission to the hospital ward;
  • At least two of the following risk factors for prolonged hospitalization: two or more comorbidities; sepsis; liver, lung, or kidney diseases; neoplasia; mechanical ventilation; and use of vasopressor or dialysis therapy.

Exclusion Criteria

  • Patients with a cognitive disability that made them unable to perform the respiratory training;
  • Uncontrolled cardiac arrhythmias;
  • Circulatory shock;
  • Acute ischemic heart disease;
  • acute respiratory failure (characterised by a partial pressure of arterial oxygen < 60 mmHg or a partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide > 50 mmHg);
  • neuromuscular disease or myopathies;
  • diaphragmatic paresis or paralysis were excluded from the protocol.

Gender Eligibility: All

Minimum Age: 18 Years

Maximum Age: 60 Years

Are Healthy Volunteers Accepted: No

Investigator Details

  • Lead Sponsor
    • Federal University of Bahia
  • Provider of Information About this Clinical Study
    • Principal Investigator: Mansueto Gomes Neto, Physiotherapy course coordinator – Federal University of Bahia
  • Overall Official(s)
    • Balbino V Nepomuceno, MD, Study Director, Federal University of Bahia


Gosselink R, Bott J, Johnson M, Dean E, Nava S, Norrenberg M, Schönhofer B, Stiller K, van de Leur H, Vincent JL. Physiotherapy for adult patients with critical illness: recommendations of the European Respiratory Society and European Society of Intensive Care Medicine Task Force on Physiotherapy for Critically Ill Patients. Intensive Care Med. 2008 Jul;34(7):1188-99. doi: 10.1007/s00134-008-1026-7. Epub 2008 Feb 19. Review.

Citations Reporting on Results

Griffiths LA, McConnell AK. The influence of inspiratory and expiratory muscle training upon rowing performance. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2007 Mar;99(5):457-66. Epub 2006 Dec 22.

Hogan MC, Welch HG. Effect of altered arterial O2 tensions on muscle metabolism in dog skeletal muscle during fatiguing work. Am J Physiol. 1986 Aug;251(2 Pt 1):C216-22.

Martin AD, Smith BK, Davenport PD, Harman E, Gonzalez-Rothi RJ, Baz M, Layon AJ, Banner MJ, Caruso LJ, Deoghare H, Huang TT, Gabrielli A. Inspiratory muscle strength training improves weaning outcome in failure to wean patients: a randomized trial. Crit Care. 2011;15(2):R84. doi: 10.1186/cc10081. Epub 2011 Mar 7.

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