Bioavailability of Phenolic Compounds in Bread

Overview

The consumption of wholemeal cereals has been associated with the reduction of several chronic diseases. The mechanisms behind these protective effects may be linked, besides dietary fiber and micronutrients, to an increased intake of phenolic compounds, mainly, hydroxycinnamates contained in the bran. Among bran fractions, aleurone usually contains the highest concentration of ferulic acid, principally contained as monomeric form and diferulic acid esters linked to arabinoxylans, representing the most relevant subclasses. The aim of the study was to evaluate the absorption of hydroxycinnamates by measuring the urinary excretion of phenolic metabolites in humans fed with two different kind of a commercial bread, as wholegrain bread and a white bread enriched with aleurone fraction. Moreover, the pharmacokinetics of the main phenolic compounds was also evaluated by measuring the circulating metabolites in plasma samples.

Full Title of Study: “Bioavailability of Phenolic Compounds in Wholegrain Bread Compared With White Bread Enriched With Aleurone Fraction”

Study Type

  • Study Type: Interventional
  • Study Design
    • Allocation: Randomized
    • Intervention Model: Crossover Assignment
    • Primary Purpose: Treatment
    • Masking: Single (Participant)
  • Study Primary Completion Date: June 2015

Interventions

  • Other: Bread
    • In each arm subjects consume bread

Arms, Groups and Cohorts

  • Active Comparator: WHOLEGRAIN BREAD
    • Subjects feed with wholegrain bread, for which ferulic acid content has been quantified.
  • Active Comparator: WHITE BREAD WITH ALEURONE – 4
    • Subjects feed with white bread with aleurone fraction in the same portion as wholegrain bread.
  • Active Comparator: WHITE BREAD WITH ALEURONE – 8
    • Subjects feed with white bread with aleurone fraction, which contains the same quantity of ferulic acid as wholegrain bread.

Clinical Trial Outcome Measures

Primary Measures

  • Phenolic compound bioavailability in wholegrain bread compared with bread enriched with aleurone fraction (urine samples will be filtered and diluted and phenolic compound metabolites will be identified)
    • Time Frame: 0h; 0-3h; 3-6h; 6-10h; 10-14h; 14-24h; 24-28h; 28-34h; 34-48h.
    • Volunteers will collect urine before consuming bread (T0) and for 48 hours after the consumption of the meal test, in each study arms. Urine samples will be collected and stored at -80°C until uHPLC/MS analysis. Prior analysis, urine samples will be filtered and diluted and phenolic compound metabolites will be identified. Expected Metabolites: Coumaric acid, Hydroxyphenylpropionic acid, Dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, Hippuric acid, Enterolactone, Enterodiol, Coumaric acid sulphate, Phenylpropionic acid sulphate, Vanillic acid sulphate, Hydroxyphenylpropionic acid sulphate, Ferulic acid sulphate, Dihydroferulic acid sulphate, Hydroxyphenylpropionic acid glucuronide, Ferulic acid glucuronide, Enterolactone sulphate, Enterodiol sulphate, Enterolactone glucuronide, Enterodiol glucuronide.

Secondary Measures

  • Phenolic compound pharmacokinetics in wholegrain bread compared with bread enriched with aleurone fraction (metabolites identified in Plasma samples that will be collected prior (T0) and after bread consumption in each study arms.)
    • Time Frame: 0h; 0.5h; 1h; 2h; 4h; 7h; 24h.
    • Plasma samples will be collected prior (T0) and after bread consumption in each study arms. Expected Metabolites: Coumaric acid, Hydroxyphenylpropionic acid, Dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, Hippuric acid, Enterolactone, Enterodiol, Coumaric acid sulphate, Phenylpropionic acid sulphate, Vanillic acid sulphate, Hydroxyphenylpropionic acid sulphate, Ferulic acid sulphate, Dihydroferulic acid sulphate, Hydroxyphenylpropionic acid glucuronide, Ferulic acid glucuronide, Enterolactone sulphate, Enterodiol sulphate, Enterolactone glucuronide, Enterodiol glucuronide.

Participating in This Clinical Trial

Inclusion Criteria

  • BMI 18-25 kg/m2

Exclusion Criteria

  • Pregnancy and breastfeeding
  • diagnosis of celiac disease
  • diagnosed methabolic diseases (diabetes and disorders of glycaemic control, hypertension, dyslipidemia)
  • sustained use of nutritional supplements of vitamins, in particular E and C, at the recruitment step
  • chronic pharmacological therapy
  • antibiotic therapy during the last 40 days

Gender Eligibility: All

Minimum Age: 18 Years

Maximum Age: 30 Years

Are Healthy Volunteers Accepted: Accepts Healthy Volunteers

Investigator Details

  • Lead Sponsor
    • University of Parma
  • Provider of Information About this Clinical Study
    • Principal Investigator: Daniele Del Rio, Associate Professor – University of Parma
  • Overall Official(s)
    • Daniele Del Rio, Professor, Principal Investigator, University of Parma

References

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Del Rio D, Rodriguez-Mateos A, Spencer JP, Tognolini M, Borges G, Crozier A. Dietary (poly)phenolics in human health: structures, bioavailability, and evidence of protective effects against chronic diseases. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2013 May 10;18(14):1818-92. doi: 10.1089/ars.2012.4581. Epub 2012 Aug 27. Review.

Gabrielsson J, Weiner D. Non-compartmental analysis. Methods Mol Biol. 2012;929:377-89.

Kikuzaki H, Hisamoto M, Hirose K, Akiyama K, Taniguchi H. Antioxidant properties of ferulic acid and its related compounds. J Agric Food Chem. 2002 Mar 27;50(7):2161-8.

Calani L, Ounnas F, Salen P, Demeilliers C, Bresciani L, Scazzina F, Brighenti F, Melegari C, Crozier A, de Lorgeril M, Del Rio D. Bioavailability and metabolism of hydroxycinnamates in rats fed with durum wheat aleurone fractions. Food Funct. 2014 Aug;5(8):1738-46. doi: 10.1039/c4fo00328d.

Luceri C, Giannini L, Lodovici M, Antonucci E, Abbate R, Masini E, Dolara P. p-Coumaric acid, a common dietary phenol, inhibits platelet activity in vitro and in vivo. Br J Nutr. 2007 Mar;97(3):458-63.

Mateo Anson N, Hemery YM, Bast A, Haenen GR. Optimizing the bioactive potential of wheat bran by processing. Food Funct. 2012 Apr;3(4):362-75. doi: 10.1039/c2fo10241b. Epub 2012 Feb 15. Review.

Stalmach A, Mullen W, Barron D, Uchida K, Yokota T, Cavin C, Steiling H, Williamson G, Crozier A. Metabolite profiling of hydroxycinnamate derivatives in plasma and urine after the ingestion of coffee by humans: identification of biomarkers of coffee consumption. Drug Metab Dispos. 2009 Aug;37(8):1749-58. doi: 10.1124/dmd.109.028019. Epub 2009 May 21.

Stalmach A, Steiling H, Williamson G, Crozier A. Bioavailability of chlorogenic acids following acute ingestion of coffee by humans with an ileostomy. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2010 Sep 1;501(1):98-105. doi: 10.1016/j.abb.2010.03.005. Epub 2010 Mar 11.

Truswell AS. Cereal grains and coronary heart disease. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2002 Jan;56(1):1-14. Review.

Zaupa M, Scazzina F, Dall'Asta M, Calani L, Del Rio D, Bianchi MA, Melegari C, De Albertis P, Tribuzio G, Pellegrini N, Brighenti F. In vitro bioaccessibility of phenolics and vitamins from durum wheat aleurone fractions. J Agric Food Chem. 2014 Feb 19;62(7):1543-9. doi: 10.1021/jf404522a. Epub 2014 Feb 6.

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