Dose-response Effect of Whey Protein Consumed as Pre-meal on Postprandial Lipaemia in Subjects With Metabolic Syndrome

Overview

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the most important and frequent causes of death. Postprandial lipidemia (PPL) is an independent risk factor for CVD, besides the traditional risk factors e.g. hypertension, high LDL-cholesterol, family disposition of CVD and type 2 diabetes (T2D). A high PPL is associated with an increased risk of myocardial infarction and stroke. Reduction of increased PPL, as a part of CVD prevention, is therefore pivotal. Especially in groups with increased risk of CVD, like the metabolic syndrome (MeS) and T2D. Identification of a simple diet-related method will possibly result in reduction of CVD in healthy as well as high-risk subjects. The aim of this project is to investigate if there is a dose-response effect of whey protein consumed as pre-meal prior to a fat-rich meal on responses of triglycerides and apolipoprotein B48 (ApoB48). Secondarily the aim is to study the responses of glucose, insulin, glucagon, amino acids, inflammatory markers, incretins, rate of gastric emptying and metabolomics. Also satiety feeling will be measured. Investigators hypothesize that whey protein (10 or 20g) consumed 15 minutes prior to a fat-rich isocaloric meal reduces triglyceride- and ApoB48 responses more and in a dose-dependent way compared to placebo (water) consumed prior to the meal in subjects with MeS. The investigators research will hopefully contribute to a better understanding of how PPL can be modified in a simple manner. It will promote innovation to the food industry for development and production of healthy food products, which can be applied in the fight against CVD in the background population in general and high-risk people in particular. Thus, the results of this project can impart knowledge of great importance both to the national and international food industry as well as the healthcare systems.

Full Title of Study: “Whey Protein, Postprandial Lipaemia and Cardiovascular Disease: Evaluation of the Effect of a Pre-meal of Whey Protein on Postprandial Lipaemia in Persons With the Metabolic Syndrome and Type 2 Diabetes”

Study Type

  • Study Type: Interventional
  • Study Design
    • Allocation: Randomized
    • Intervention Model: Crossover Assignment
    • Primary Purpose: Prevention
    • Masking: None (Open Label)
  • Study Primary Completion Date: June 2014

Detailed Description

Using a randomised, cross-over design 20 subjects with MeS will consume a test meal prior to a fat-rich meal. The test meals contain three different amounts of whey protein. Blood samples are collected before consumption of the pre-meal and after consumption of the fat-rich isocaloric meal during 360 minutes. The fat-rich isocaloric meal is a breakfast containing 1043 kcal (15 E% protein, 65 E% fat and 20 E% carbohydrates). The main-meal is composed of white bread, rye bread, butter, cheese (45 %), salami, egg, bacon, milk (1.5 % fat) and coffee (decaffeinated) and should be consumed over 15 min. Visual Analog Scale (VAS) will be used for determination of subjective satiety feeling.

Interventions

  • Other: Whey protein
    • Different amounts of whey protein dissolved in 200 mL water.

Arms, Groups and Cohorts

  • Experimental: 0g whey protein
    • 0g whey protein dissolved in 200 milliliter (mL) water.
  • Experimental: 10g whey protein
    • 10g whey protein dissolved in 200 milliliter (mL) water.
  • Experimental: 20g whey protein
    • 20g whey protein dissolved in 200 milliliter (mL) water.

Clinical Trial Outcome Measures

Primary Measures

  • Dose-response of whey protein as pre-meal on triglycerides after a high-fat meal in subjects with the metabolic syndrome measured as incremental Area Under the Curve (iAUC -15 – 360 min)
    • Time Frame: Prior to the pre meal (-15 min), prior to the main meal (0 min) and 60, 90, 120, 180, 240 and 360 min post main meal.
  • Dose-response of whey protein as pre-meal on apolipoprotein B48 after a high-fat meal in subjects with the metabolic syndrome measured as incremental Area Under the Curve (iAUC -15 – 360 min)
    • Time Frame: Prior to the pre meal (-15 min), prior to the main meal (0 min) and 120, 240 and 360 min post main meal.

Secondary Measures

  • Glucose responses measured as incremental Area Under the Curve (AUC -15 – 360 min)
    • Time Frame: Prior to the pre meal (-15 min), -10 min, prior to the main meal (0 min) and 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, 240 and 360 min post main meal.
  • Insulin responses measured as incremental Area Under the Curve (AUC -15 – 360 min)
    • Time Frame: Prior to the pre meal (-15 min), -10 min, prior to the main meal (0 min) and 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, 240 and 360 min post main meal.
  • Glucagon responses measured as incremental Area Under the Curve (AUC -15 – 360 min)
    • Time Frame: Prior to the pre meal (-15 min), -10 min, prior to the main meal (0 min) and 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, 240 and 360 min post main meal.
  • Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) responses measured as incremental Area Under the Curve (AUC -15 – 360 min)
    • Time Frame: Prior to the pre meal (-15 min), -10 min, prior to the main meal (0 min) and 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, 240 and 360 min post main meal.
  • Gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP) responses measured as incremental Area Under the Curve (AUC -15 – 360 min)
    • Time Frame: Prior to the pre meal (-15 min), -10 min, prior to the main meal (0 min) and 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, 240 and 360 min post main meal.

Participating in This Clinical Trial

Inclusion Criteria

  • Central obesity (female > 80 cm; male > 94 cm) with two of the following parameters: – Fasting triglycerides > 1.7 mmol/L – Fasting HDL-cholesterol < 1.03 mmol/L (female) or <1.29 mmol/L (male) – Blood pressure ≥ 130/85 mmHg – Fasting plasma glucose ≥ 5.6 mmol/L Subjects who are in medical treatment with lipid and/or blood pressure-lowering habitual treatment can participate provided that the treatment is stable throughout the trial. Exclusion Criteria:

  • Type 1 diabetes – Type 2 diabetes (HbA1c ≥ 48 mmol/L) – Fasting plasma triglycerides > 5.0 mmol/L – Blood pressure > 160/100 mmHg – Cardiovascular, liver, kidney or metabolic disease – Corticosteroid treatment – Pregnancy or lactation – Alcohol or drug abuse – Legal incapacity

Gender Eligibility: All

Minimum Age: 18 Years

Maximum Age: 80 Years

Are Healthy Volunteers Accepted: No

Investigator Details

  • Lead Sponsor
    • Aarhus University Hospital
  • Collaborator
    • University of Aarhus
  • Provider of Information About this Clinical Study
    • Principal Investigator: Ann Overgaard, PhD student – Aarhus University Hospital
  • Overall Official(s)
    • Kjeld Hermansen, Professor, Principal Investigator, Aarhus University Hospital

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