PAIN OUT: Improvement in Postoperative PAIN OUTcome


PAIN OUT is a multi-national, non-interventional registry and benchmark project, assessing and analysing clinical and patient-reported outcome data of postoperative pain.

Full Title of Study: “Improvement in Postoperative Pain Outcome”

Study Type

  • Study Type: Observational [Patient Registry]
  • Study Design
    • Time Perspective: Prospective
  • Study Primary Completion Date: December 2030

Detailed Description

PAIN OUT offers a large registry as well as a system for benchmarking and feedback of outcome quality and decision support in acute pain conditions. It collects demographic, clinical and outcome data, using a validated assessment tool available in multiple languages.

The registry part of the project aims at performing population-based research. Furthermore, its infrastructure allows for the conduct of prospective studies comparing the effectiveness of processes of care.

The benchmark part of the project provides the medical community with a unique, user-friendly system to improve treatment of patients with postoperative pain. A web-based information system, featuring two main functions, was developed:

1. a feedback and benchmarking system which provides participating sites with continuously updating data and analyses about the quality of care they provide compared to other institutions and allows identification of best clinical practice.

2. a knowledge library which provides clinicians with easily accessible and regularly updated summaries of evidence-based recommendations tailored to specific post-operative situations.

PAIN OUT is leading and overseeing sub-projects in Mexico, China, a number of European countries. Additional countries will join over time. The sub-projects are scheduled to take place over a period of two years. The design is an uncontrolled pre- post-study, in which approximately 10 hospitals from each country participate. The project consists of collecting data (processes and patient reported outcomes) at baseline from 1-3 wards in participating hospitals; analyzing of the findings, selecting and implementing measures for change in practice; carrying out another round of data collection; summerizing the findings and discussing options for further work.

Arms, Groups and Cohorts

  • post-surgical patients
    • post-surgical patients > 18 years
  • pediatric patients post-op day 1
    • pediatric patients > 4 years on post-op day 1 (sub-project QUIPSI – PAIN OUTinfant)

Clinical Trial Outcome Measures

Primary Measures

  • Assessment of postoperative pain treatment
    • Time Frame: first postoperative day

Secondary Measures

  • patients’ perception of pain treatment outcome
    • Time Frame: first postoperative day
    • worst pain since surgery least pain since surgery time in pain interference of pain with activities affect of pain on mood and emotions pain therapy side effects pain relief wish for more treatment information on treatment participation in decisions satisfaction non-medical treatment methods pre-hospital existence of pain

Participating in This Clinical Trial

Inclusion Criteria

  • >= 18 years or >= 4 years for sub-project QUIPSI/PAIN OUTinfant
  • patient is post-op day 1
  • patient is at least 6 hours on the ward
  • patient has given consent

Exclusion Criteria

  • patient cannot communicate
  • patient is cognitively impaired
  • patient is asleep
  • patient is too ill
  • patient does not want to fill in the questionnaire

Gender Eligibility: All

Minimum Age: 4 Years

Maximum Age: N/A

Are Healthy Volunteers Accepted: No

Investigator Details

  • Lead Sponsor
    • University of Jena
  • Collaborator
    • Jena University Hospital
  • Provider of Information About this Clinical Study
    • Principal Investigator: Prof. Dr. Winfried Meissner, apl. Prof. Dr. med. Winfried Meissner – University of Jena
  • Overall Official(s)
    • Winfried Meissner, Prof., Study Director, University of Jena
  • Overall Contact(s)
    • Winfried Meissner, Prof. Dr., +49 3641 9323353,


Zaslansky R, Rothaug J, Chapman CR, Bäckström R, Brill S, Fletcher D, Fodor L, Gordon DB, Komann M, Konrad C, Leykin Y, Pogatski-Zahn E, Puig MM, Rawal N, Ullrich K, Volk T, Meissner W. PAIN OUT: the making of an international acute pain registry. Eur J Pain. 2015 Apr;19(4):490-502. doi: 10.1002/ejp.571. Epub 2014 Aug 12.

Zaslansky R, Rothaug J, Chapman RC, Backström R, Brill S, Engel C, Fletcher D, Fodor L, Funk P, Gordon D, Komann M, Konrad C, Kopf A, Leykin Y, Pogatzki-Zahn E, Puig M, Rawal N, Schwenkglenks M, Taylor RS, Ullrich K, Volk T, Yahiaoui-Doktor M, Meissner W. PAIN OUT: an international acute pain registry supporting clinicians in decision making and in quality improvement activities. J Eval Clin Pract. 2014 Dec;20(6):1090-8. doi: 10.1111/jep.12205. Epub 2014 Jul 1.

Citations Reporting on Results

Gerbershagen HJ, Pogatzki-Zahn E, Aduckathil S, Peelen LM, Kappen TH, van Wijck AJ, Kalkman CJ, Meissner W. Procedure-specific risk factor analysis for the development of severe postoperative pain. Anesthesiology. 2014 May;120(5):1237-45. doi: 10.1097/ALN.0000000000000108.

Rothaug J, Zaslansky R, Schwenkglenks M, Komann M, Allvin R, Backström R, Brill S, Buchholz I, Engel C, Fletcher D, Fodor L, Funk P, Gerbershagen HJ, Gordon DB, Konrad C, Kopf A, Leykin Y, Pogatzki-Zahn E, Puig M, Rawal N, Taylor RS, Ullrich K, Volk T, Yahiaoui-Doktor M, Meissner W. Patients' perception of postoperative pain management: validation of the International Pain Outcomes (IPO) questionnaire. J Pain. 2013 Nov;14(11):1361-70. doi: 10.1016/j.jpain.2013.05.016. Epub 2013 Sep 7.

Gerbershagen HJ, Aduckathil S, van Wijck AJ, Peelen LM, Kalkman CJ, Meissner W. Pain intensity on the first day after surgery: a prospective cohort study comparing 179 surgical procedures. Anesthesiology. 2013 Apr;118(4):934-44. doi: 10.1097/ALN.0b013e31828866b3.

Gerbershagen HJ, Rothaug J, Kalkman CJ, Meissner W. Determination of moderate-to-severe postoperative pain on the numeric rating scale: a cut-off point analysis applying four different methods. Br J Anaesth. 2011 Oct;107(4):619-26. doi: 10.1093/bja/aer195. Epub 2011 Jun 30.

Rothaug J, Weiss T, Meissner W. How simple can it get? Measuring pain with NRS items or binary items. Clin J Pain. 2013 Mar;29(3):224-32. doi: 10.1097/AJP.0b013e31824c5d7a.

Taylor RS, Ullrich K, Regan S, Broussard C, Schwenkglenks M, Taylor RJ, Gordon DB, Zaslansky R, Meissner W, Rothaug J, Langford R; PAIN-OUT investigators. The impact of early postoperative pain on health-related quality of life. Pain Pract. 2013 Sep;13(7):515-23. doi: 10.1111/papr.12026. Epub 2012 Dec 23.

Zaslansky R, Chapman CR, Rothaug J, Bäckström R, Brill S, Davidson E, Elessi K, Fletcher D, Fodor L, Karanja E, Konrad C, Kopf A, Leykin Y, Lipman A, Puig M, Rawal N, Schug S, Ullrich K, Volk T, Meissner W. Feasibility of international data collection and feedback on post-operative pain data: proof of concept. Eur J Pain. 2012 Mar;16(3):430-8. doi: 10.1002/j.1532-2149.2011.00024.x. Epub 2011 Dec 19.

Clinical trials entries are delivered from the US National Institutes of Health and are not reviewed separately by this site. Please see the identifier information above for retrieving further details from the government database.

At, we keep tabs on over 200,000 clinical trials in the US and abroad, using medical data supplied directly by the US National Institutes of Health. Please see the About and Contact page for details.