Study of Buspirone for Relapse-Prevention in Adults With Cocaine Dependence

Overview

The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether or not buspirone is effective in preventing relapse in cocaine-dependent adults in inpatient/residential treatment who are planning to enter outpatient treatment upon inpatient/residential discharge.

Full Title of Study: “A Randomized Controlled Evaluation of Buspirone for Relapse-Prevention in Adults With Cocaine Dependence (BRAC)”

Study Type

  • Study Type: Interventional
  • Study Design
    • Allocation: Randomized
    • Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
    • Primary Purpose: Treatment
    • Masking: Quadruple (Participant, Care Provider, Investigator, Outcomes Assessor)
  • Study Primary Completion Date: June 2013

Detailed Description

The primary objective is to evaluate the efficacy of buspirone, relative to placebo, in preventing relapse in cocaine-dependent adults in inpatient/residential treatment who are planning to enter outpatient treatment upon inpatient/residential discharge. Secondary objectives include evaluating the impact of buspirone, relative to placebo, on other drug-abuse outcomes and on factors that may mediate buspirone's efficacy as a relapse-prevention treatment.

Interventions

  • Drug: Buspirone
    • Study participants will be randomly assigned to receive either buspirone or matching placebo. Following dose escalation, the target at study day 10 is to achieve the highest tolerated dose not exceeding 60 mg. Participants who are unable to reach the 60 mg dose or who need to be reduced from 60 mg due to tolerability will be maintained on 15 mg, 30 mg, or 45 mg, whichever is the highest dose tolerated.
  • Drug: Placebo
    • Study participants will be randomly assigned to receive either buspirone or matching placebo. Placebo tablets will be identical in color and size to the buspirone tablets.

Arms, Groups and Cohorts

  • Active Comparator: Buspirone plus TAU
    • Buspirone titrated to 60 mg/day for the 15-week active study
  • Placebo Comparator: Placebo plus TAU
    • Placebo taken daily for the 15-week active study

Clinical Trial Outcome Measures

Primary Measures

  • Maximum Days of Continuous Cocaine Abstinence
    • Time Frame: study week 16
    • The primary outcome measure selected for the present two-stage protocol is the maximum days of continuous cocaine abstinence during study weeks 4-15. The Timeline Follow-back (TLFB) procedure (Sobell and Sobell, 1992; Fals-Stewart, 2000) will be used to assess the participants’ self-reported use of substances for each day of the study. A rapid UDS system that screens for drugs of abuse will be used to analyze the urine samples.

Secondary Measures

  • Cocaine-use Days
    • Time Frame: study week 16
    • Cocaine use days during days 22-105 as assessed by UDS and self-report combined with no imputation

Participating in This Clinical Trial

Inclusion Criteria

1. be 18 years of age or older

2. be able to understand the study, and having understood, provide written informed consent in English

3. meet DSM-IV-TR diagnostic criteria for current (within the last 12 months) dependence for cocaine, must self-report having used crack cocaine a minimum of four times in the 28 days prior to inpatient/residential admission, and must report that their typical pattern of use is at least once a week

4. have a willingness to comply with all study procedures and medication instructions

5. be enrolled in an inpatient/residential program at a participating CTP, scheduled to be in inpatient/residential treatment for 12-19 days when randomized, and planning to enroll in local outpatient treatment through the end of the active treatment phase (i.e., study week 15)

6. if female and of child bearing potential, agree to use one of the following methods of birth control:

  • oral contraceptives
  • contraceptive patch
  • barrier (diaphragm or condom)
  • intrauterine contraceptive system
  • levonorgestrel implant
  • medroxyprogesterone acetate contraceptive injection
  • complete abstinence from sexual intercourse
  • hormonal vaginal contraceptive ring

Exclusion Criteria

1. meet DSM-IV-TR diagnostic criteria for current (within the last 12 months) opioid dependence

2. have a medical or psychiatric condition that, in the judgment of the study physician, would make study participation unsafe or which would make treatment compliance difficult. Medical conditions that may compromise participant safety or study conduct include, but are not limited to:

  • AIDS according to the current CDC criteria for AIDS
  • liver function tests greater than 3X upper limit of normal
  • serum creatinine greater than 2 mg/dL

3. have a psychiatric disorder requiring continued treatment with a psychotropic medication

4. have a known or suspected hypersensitivity to buspirone

5. be pregnant or breastfeeding

6. have used any of the following medications within 14 days of randomization: monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors such as phenelzine (Nardil), selegiline (Eldepryl), isocarboxazid (Marplan), or tranylcypromine (Parnate)

7. be taking any medications which, in the judgment of the study physician, may produce interactions with buspirone that are sufficiently dangerous so as to exclude the patient from participating in the study. Alternatively, the study physician, in consultation with the patient and his or her physician, may elect to withdraw the patient from the problem medications before randomization. Some of the possible interactions are discussed in section 8.8.

8. be anyone who, in the judgment of the investigator, would not be expected to complete the study protocol (e.g., due to relocation from the clinic area, probable incarceration, etc.)

9. be a significant suicidal/homicidal risk

Gender Eligibility: All

Minimum Age: 18 Years

Maximum Age: N/A

Are Healthy Volunteers Accepted: No

Investigator Details

  • Lead Sponsor
    • University of Cincinnati
  • Collaborator
    • National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA)
  • Provider of Information About this Clinical Study
    • Principal Investigator: Theresa Winhusen, Associate Professor, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neuroscience; CinARC Director – University of Cincinnati
  • Overall Official(s)
    • Theresa Winhusen, PhD, Principal Investigator, University of Cincinnati, CTN Ohio Valley Node

References

Winhusen T, Brady KT, Stitzer M, Woody G, Lindblad R, Kropp F, Brigham G, Liu D, Sparenborg S, Sharma G, Vanveldhuisen P, Adinoff B, Somoza E. Evaluation of buspirone for relapse-prevention in adults with cocaine dependence: an efficacy trial conducted in the real world. Contemp Clin Trials. 2012 Sep;33(5):993-1002. doi: 10.1016/j.cct.2012.05.003. Epub 2012 May 19.

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