Phase III Confirmatory Study in Erythropoietic Protoporphyria

Overview

This is a randomized placebo-controlled study to be conducted in two parallel study arms for a six month period (three doses). Between 75 and 100 eligible patients will be enrolled. Patients will receive afamelanotide (16 mg implants) or placebo according to the following dosing regimen:

- Group A will be administered afamelanotide implants on Days 0, 60 and 120

- Group B will be administered placebo implants on Days 0, 60 and 120

The number and severity of phototoxic reactions, the type and duration of sun exposure, treatment-emergent adverse events and the use of concomitant medication will be recorded by patients in study diaries between Days 0 and 180. Quality of life will be measured using the DLQI and EPP-QoL at Days 0, 60, 120 and 180. Participants will visit the clinic on Days 60, 120 and 180 for assessments of adverse events.

A subset of patients will be photoprovoked on the lower back and dorsal surface of the hand and the minimal symptom dose (MSD) will be determined on Days 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120.

Full Title of Study: “A Phase III, Multicentre, Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Study to Confirm the Safety and Efficacy of Subcutaneous Bioresorbable Afamelanotide Implants in Patients With Erythropoietic Protoporphyria (EPP)”

Study Type

  • Study Type: Interventional
  • Study Design
    • Allocation: Randomized
    • Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
    • Primary Purpose: Treatment
    • Masking: Quadruple (Participant, Care Provider, Investigator, Outcomes Assessor)
  • Study Primary Completion Date: July 2013

Detailed Description

Afamelanotide is a man-made drug being studied for use as a preventative medication for Erythropoietic Protoporphyria (EPP) sufferers. It is a synthetically produced analogue of human alpha melanocyte stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) and is available in Europe.

The purpose of this study is to look at the type and duration of sun exposure when patients are exposed to light. This study will also look at how the drug is tolerated when taken by people with EPP.

The study will involve the use of an implant, which comes in the form of a small rod to be administered under the skin. The implant may contain the study drug afamelanotide or a placebo (inactive medication).

Over 620 subjects have been treated with afamelanotide to date with no serious safety concerns identified. For this study, afamelanotide has been formulated as a controlled release depot injection (implant). This means that the afamelanotide will be released slowly into the body over a few days.

This study aims to confirm the photoprotective properties if afamelanotide demonstrated in the earlier Phase II and phase III studies.

Interventions

  • Drug: Afamelanotide
    • One 16mg subcutaneous implant every 2 months for 6 months.
  • Drug: Placebo
    • One placebo subcutaneous implant every 2 months for 6 months

Arms, Groups and Cohorts

  • Experimental: Afamelanotide
    • One 16mg subcutaneous implant every 2 months for 6 months.
  • Placebo Comparator: Placebo
    • One placebo subcutaneous implant every 2 months for 6 months.

Clinical Trial Outcome Measures

Primary Measures

  • Duration of Direct Sunlight Exposure Between 10:00 and 18:00 Hours on Days When no Pain Was Experienced (Pain Score of 0).
    • Time Frame: Daily for 6 months
    • The amount of direct sunlight exposure between 10:00 and 18:00 hours on days when no pain was experienced (e.g.11-point Likert pain score of 0). Time was recorded in a patient diary using 15 minute time blocks. The pain score is measured by the 11-point Likert Pain scale with minimum of 0 and maximum of 10. Likert Pain scale of 0 represents no pain and 10 represents worst imaginable pain.

Secondary Measures

  • Combined Sun Exposure and Phototoxic Pain
    • Time Frame: Daily for 6 months
    • Time in direct sunlight exposure between 10:00 and 18:00 hours on days when no or mild pain was experienced (Likert scores of 0 to 3). The pain score is measured by the 11-point Likert Pain scale with minimum of 0 and maximum of 10. Likert Pain scale of 0 represents no pain and 10 represents worst imaginable pain.
  • Sun Exposure
    • Time Frame: Daily for 6 months
    • Duration of direct sunlight exposure between 10:00 and 18:00 hours during the study.
  • Quality of Life Score
    • Time Frame: Day 60, Day 120, and Day 180 or early termination.
    • The Quality of life of participant is measured using DLQI and EPP QoL. The Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) is a simple practical measure for routine clinical use. The DLQI ranges from 0 (no impact on life) to 30 (significant impact on life) . The Erthropoietic protoporphyria quality of life measure (EPP-QoL) scores range from 0 (worst imaginable QoL) to 100 (best possible QoL).
  • Photoprovocation
    • Time Frame: Day 0, Day 30, Day 60, Day 90 and Day 120.
    • A subset of subjects was photoprovoked on the dorsal surface of the hand (predilection place) and lower back and the minimum symptom dose (MSD) determined on Days 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120. The amount of radiation required to provoke the first clinical symptom was recorded.
  • Maximum Severity of Phototoxic Reaction Experienced by Participants
    • Time Frame: Daily for 6 months
    • The phototoxicity – phototoxic pain secondary endpoint has been divided into two secondary outcome measures. The days on which the participant experienced pain as a result of phototoxic reactions (caused by exposure to natural light) was recorded in a study diary. On each day such a reaction occurred, the participant scored the level of pain using an 11-point Likert pain scale, with minimum of 0 and maximum of 10. The 11-point Likert pain scale with a value of 0 represents no pain and 10 represents worst imaginable pain. The maximum severity of a phototoxic reaction was determined by the highest daily 11-point Likert scale score that occurred during that phototoxic reaction.
  • Total Number Phototoxic Reactions Experienced by Participants
    • Time Frame: Daily for 6 months
    • The phototoxicity – phototoxic pain secondary endpoint has been divided into two secondary outcome measures. The number of episodes was the endpoint. The days on which the participant experienced pain as a result of phototoxic reactions (caused by exposure to natural light) was recorded in a study diary. On each day such a reaction occurred, the participant scored the level of pain using an 11-point Likert pain scale, with minimum of 0 and maximum of 10. The 11-point Likert Pain scale with a value of 0 represents no pain and 10 represents worst imaginable pain. The number of phototoxic reactions was determined by counting the number of episodes on which participants report a 11-point Likert scale score of 4 or more for one or more consecutive days.

Participating in This Clinical Trial

Inclusion Criteria

  • Male or female subjects with characteristic symptoms of EPP phototoxicity and a biochemically-confirmed diagnosis of EPP.
  • Aged 18 years old and above (inclusive).
  • Able to understand and sign the written Informed Consent Form.
  • Willing to take precautions to prevent pregnancy until completion of the study (Day 180).

Exclusion Criteria

  • Any allergy to afamelanotide or the polymer contained in the implant or to lidocaine or other local anesthetic to be used during the administration of the study medication
  • EPP patients with significant hepatic involvement
  • Personal history of melanoma or dysplastic nevus syndrome.
  • Current Bowen's disease, basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, or other malignant or premalignant skin lesions.
  • Any other photodermatosis such as polymorphic light eruption, actinic prurigo, discoid lupus erythematosus, chronic actinic dermatitis or solar urticaria.
  • Any evidence of clinically significant organ dysfunction or any clinically significant deviation from normal in the clinical or laboratory determinations.
  • Acute history of drug or alcohol abuse (in the last 6 months).
  • Patient assessed as not suitable for the study in the opinion of the Investigator (e.g. noncompliance history, allergic to local anesthetics, faints when given injections or giving blood).
  • Participation in a clinical trial for an investigational agent within 30 days prior to the screening visit.
  • Prior and concomitant therapy with medications which may interfere with the objectives of the study, including drugs that cause photosensitivity or skin pigmentation.
  • Female who is pregnant (confirmed by positive serum β-HCG pregnancy test prior to baseline) or lactating.
  • Females of child-bearing potential (pre-menopausal, not surgically sterile) not using adequate contraceptive measures (i.e. oral contraceptives, diaphragm plus spermicide, intrauterine device).

Gender Eligibility: All

Minimum Age: 18 Years

Maximum Age: N/A

Are Healthy Volunteers Accepted: No

Investigator Details

  • Lead Sponsor
    • Clinuvel Pharmaceuticals Limited
  • Provider of Information About this Clinical Study
    • Sponsor
  • Overall Official(s)
    • Robert Desnick, MD, Principal Investigator, Mt. Sinai Medical Center

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