Gamma-delta Tocotrienol as Potential Maintenance Treatment in Women With Metastatic Breast Cancer


Twelve healthy volunteers who fit the inclusion and exclusion criteria and provide written informed consent to participate in the trial will be recruited to compare the rate and extent of absorption and pharmacokinetics of the newly formulated Gamma-Delta formulation with TRF.

Full Title of Study: “Phase 1a: A Randomized, 2-period Cross-over Study to Compare the Bioavailability of Gamma-Delta Tocotrienol (GDT) With That of Tocotrienol Rich Fraction (TRF) in Twelve Healthy Subjects”

Study Type

  • Study Type: Interventional
  • Study Design
    • Allocation: Randomized
    • Intervention Model: Crossover Assignment
    • Primary Purpose: Treatment
    • Masking: Single (Participant)
  • Study Primary Completion Date: January 2013

Detailed Description

Twelve healthy subjects will be admitted to a clinical study ward on the Day 0. Physical check up and the health status will be confirmed during check in. After fasting for a minimum of 10 hours overnight, each subject will be administered a single dose of TRF or Gamma-Delta after taking a standardized high-fat meal breakfast on Day 1. Thereafter, standard meals will be provided at 4 and 12 hours after dosing. Blood samples (5mL will be taken using an in-dwelling canula placed in the antecubital vein immediately before and at 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10, 14, and 24 hours after dosing. Subjects will be admitted for 24 hours and discharged after the last blood sampling. During the study, blood pressure and the heart rate will be monitored regularly for safety profile. After a one week wash out period, subject will return to the ward and be given the other formulation (TRF or GDT) and the same procedures will be repeated. Any adverse events that arise during the treatment will be recorded and followed up till resolution.


  • Dietary Supplement: Gamma-Delta Tocotrienol and Tocotrienol Rich Fraction
    • Single oral TRF or Gamma-Delta Tocotrienol dosage

Arms, Groups and Cohorts

  • Experimental: Gamma-Delta Tocotrienol
  • Active Comparator: TRF

Clinical Trial Outcome Measures

Primary Measures

  • Peak Plasma Concentration (Cmax)of drug
    • Time Frame: 0 to 24 hours after dosing

Participating in This Clinical Trial

Inclusion Criteria

  • Male and female aged 21-55 years old – Good health – No allergy to vitamin E/ palm oil – No past (within 3 months) / current use of dietary supplements containing vitamin E Exclusion Criteria:

  • History of bleeding tendencies or any condition predisposing to bleeding e.g. thrombocytopenia, abnormal liver function, liver disease (e.g. chronic hepatitis), gastrointestinal ulcers – Candidate for surgery or had undergone surgery in the past 6 months – Current or past use (last 3 months) of antithrombotic drugs such as antiplatelets (aspirin, ticlopidine), anticoagulants (heparin, warfarin), thrombolytic agents (streptokinase), etc – Current or past history of cancer – Pregnant/ breastfeeding women – Smokers – Drug or alcohol abuse – Hypercholesterolemia – Chronic conditions such as uncontrolled hypertension, heart disease (ischemic heart disease, heart failure, cardiac arrhythmia), uncontrolled diabetes, HIV infection, or other psychiatric illness/ social situations that might limit adherence to study protocol. – Unable or unwilling to stop taking vitamins, herbal preparations or nonprescription medications

Gender Eligibility: All

Minimum Age: 21 Years

Maximum Age: 55 Years

Are Healthy Volunteers Accepted: Accepts Healthy Volunteers

Investigator Details

  • Lead Sponsor
    • Malaysia Palm Oil Board
  • Collaborator
    • University of Malaya
  • Provider of Information About this Clinical Study
    • Principal Investigator: Puvaneswari Meganathan, Ms – Malaysia Palm Oil Board
  • Overall Official(s)
    • Nur Aishah Mohd Taib, Principal Investigator, University of Malaya


Patel V, Rink C, Gordillo GM, Khanna S, Gnyawali U, Roy S, Shneker B, Ganesh K, Phillips G, More JL, Sarkar A, Kirkpatrick R, Elkhammas EA, Klatte E, Miller M, Firstenberg MS, Chiocca EA, Nesaretnam K, Sen CK. Oral tocotrienols are transported to human tissues and delay the progression of the model for end-stage liver disease score in patients. J Nutr. 2012 Mar;142(3):513-9. doi: 10.3945/jn.111.151902. Epub 2012 Feb 1.

Mahalingam D, Radhakrishnan AK, Amom Z, Ibrahim N, Nesaretnam K. Effects of supplementation with tocotrienol-rich fraction on immune response to tetanus toxoid immunization in normal healthy volunteers. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2011 Jan;65(1):63-9. doi: 10.1038/ejcn.2010.184. Epub 2010 Sep 22.

Zaiden N, Yap WN, Ong S, Xu CH, Teo VH, Chang CP, Zhang XW, Nesaretnam K, Shiba S, Yap YL. Gamma delta tocotrienols reduce hepatic triglyceride synthesis and VLDL secretion. J Atheroscler Thromb. 2010 Oct 27;17(10):1019-32. Epub 2010 Aug 10.

Comitato R, Nesaretnam K, Leoni G, Ambra R, Canali R, Bolli A, Marino M, Virgili F. A novel mechanism of natural vitamin E tocotrienol activity: involvement of ERbeta signal transduction. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2009 Aug;297(2):E427-37. doi: 10.1152/ajpendo.00187.2009. Epub 2009 Jun 2.

Weng-Yew W, Selvaduray KR, Ming CH, Nesaretnam K. Suppression of tumor growth by palm tocotrienols via the attenuation of angiogenesis. Nutr Cancer. 2009;61(3):367-73. doi: 10.1080/01635580802582736.

Citations Reporting on Results

Nesaretnam K, Selvaduray KR, Abdul Razak G, Veerasenan SD, Gomez PA. Effectiveness of tocotrienol-rich fraction combined with tamoxifen in the management of women with early breast cancer: a pilot clinical trial. Breast Cancer Res. 2010;12(5):R81. doi: 10.1186/bcr2726. Epub 2010 Oct 8.

Clinical trials entries are delivered from the US National Institutes of Health and are not reviewed separately by this site. Please see the identifier information above for retrieving further details from the government database.

At, we keep tabs on over 200,000 clinical trials in the US and abroad, using medical data supplied directly by the US National Institutes of Health. Please see the About and Contact page for details.